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The Handmaid's Tale

by Margaret Atwood

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What is Atwood's message in The Handmaid's Tale?

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The message of The Handmaid's Tale is that political control of women's bodies and reproduction is wrong. This is communicated through examples of objectification and violence against women.

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There are several important themes in A Handmaid's Tale. These include the following:

The objectification of women: women and women's bodies become property in Gilead, and Handmaids lose any personal agency their sexuality.

Religious totalitarianism: Gilead uses state power to enforce religious laws and to control access to fertile women. Gilead's regimented society is the product of religious zealotry that confuses control with morality.

Complicity: many of the characters in the book, including Offred, are complicit in maintaining in the Gilead regime. A recurring theme is how, in the face of the power of the state, people will do anything to avoid punishment.

The male gaze: this novel shows how women are subjugated by the way men look at them, or that being seen can be a form of violence. This is exemplified by the secret police, know as "the eyes," and is a deliberate invocation of the well-being one supposedly feels under the protection of an all-seeing God. In Gilead, however, this protection turns into a threat.

Taken together, these themes all contribute to a central message, which is that political control of women's bodies and their ability to reproduce is morally wrong. Gilead's totalitarianism is a direct result of an explicitly patriarchal system that uses religious authority to erase female agency. While Atwood's story is fictional, another message is that it would be easy to slip into a Gilead-like society unless we are vigilant about defending personal agency.

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What central message is The Handmaid's Tale conveying?

As a previous educator has noted, Margaret Attwood once said that, in writing The Handmaid’s Tale, she wanted to see what would happen when misogynistic attitudes are taken to their logical conclusion. Another way of putting it is to say that attitudes, however causally held, can have serious consequences, even if those consequences are wholly unintended. Among other things, they can distort how we see the world through a process of dehumanizing the Other.

This central message allows us to answer the question of how on earth a dystopian society such as Gilead could ever have been established in the first place. Over time, casually held attitudes of sexism and misogyny will have hardened into imperishable dogmas that formed the governing principles in this fundamentalist dictatorship.

Most of those men who held such attitudes would doubtless not have expected such a society to emerge. But it did, and it would not have come about had it not been for those attitudes. The fundamentalist elders of this rigid patriarchy didn’t come out of nowhere; they were, to a large extent, the creatures of their environment. And that environment had been thoroughly contaminated by many years of rampant sexism and misogyny, however casually expressed.

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What central message is The Handmaid's Tale conveying?

Of The Handmaid's Tale, Margaret Atwood once said,

"This is a book about what happens when certain casually held attitudes about women are taken to their logical conclusions. For example, I explore a number of conservative opinions still held by many—such as a woman's place is in the home. And also certain feminist pronouncements—women prefer the company of other women, for example. Take these beliefs to their logical ends and see what happens [....] I decided to take these positions and dramatize them, carry them to their furthest logical conclusions."

Therefore, I think it is reasonable to surmise that one major theme of the book has to do with the dangers of extremism, no matter what the kind. This is not to say that either religion or feminism, for example, is extremist by nature, but part of Atwood's point seems to be that any position can be carried to extremist levels.

Furthermore, it seems that extremism can become even more dangerous, when coupled with gender roles. When gender roles are as rigidly defined as they are in Gilead, no one is happy; no one is really free (another theme). Even Offred's commander, arguably the character with the most power and personal freedom, is unhappy. He routinely breaks the rules he helped to create by having private meetings with Offred, playing Scrabble with her, and then taking her to Jezebel's. If he were happy with his role and the rules, he wouldn't need to step out of that role and break those rules.

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What central message is The Handmaid's Tale conveying?

The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood was published in 1985, and in some ways is similar in its vision to Orwell's 1984 in projecting a dystopian totalitarian future; given its probable date of composition, it seems likely that Atwood had Orwell's book in mind while writing. 

There are several messages being conveyed by the novel. First, it is written from the perspective of a Canadian author looking with some distaste at the culture of the United States, especially at what seems from a Canadian perspective, to be the disconcerting powerful influence of right-wing religious extremists, leading to racial discrimination, gender inequality, and xenophobia. Just as in the early nineteenth century, Canada provided a refuge for escaping black slaves, and in the 1960s a refuge for young men avoiding being drafted to serve in the Vietnam war, so in Atwood's novel it become a refuge for women escaping gender oppression.

The main message of the novel is one which supports gender equality and personal liberty against the forces of ignorance and prejudice. It especially argues that the two are linked. Prejudice and inequality spring from ignorance and restricting information and freedom of speech are the marks of a totalitarian government. Literature, and especially the classics, are especially important for the way they develop and free the human mind. 

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What central message is The Handmaid's Tale conveying?

The Handmaid's Tale certainly fall within the category of being a dystopian novel, and as such one of the central messages of the novel addresses the role of government in limiting the free will of the people.  Throughout the novel, Atwood provides a multitude of examples of characters who protest, embrace, or merely put up with the harsh system of the new government of Gilead. 

Atwood utilizes the over-zealous structure of Gilead with its commanders and rigid laws concerning both men and women's roles in society to force the reader to analyze how society categorizes people based on gender and at the same time, how people of both genders either accept or deny those roles.  Gilead is a hyperbole for everything that is wrong with gender roles, and Atwood exploits it to force the reader to question the currently accepted definitions as well.

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