What might Hamlet say to Gertrude about her hasty marriage to his uncle?

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As said in the other answer, Hamlet does have a conversation with his mother in which he confronts her about being so quick to marry Claudius, her brother-in-law, after her husband's death. Hamlet is very upset and heated during this conversation. Thoughts he has been having since before his encounter with the ghost have been seething inside him and now come exploding out.

Hamlet wants to impress on his mother the sense of the wrong she has done for the sake of convenience—or possibly lust—in marrying a man who, in his opinion, is beneath his father in every way and scarcely worthy of her notice. He does manage to frighten her badly and arouse her guilt. Because she is afraid Hamlet is going to hurt or kill her, Gertrude cries out, and Polonius responds from behind the arras, causing Hamlet to kill him because he thinks he is Claudius.

It is possible, however, that Hamlet could have chosen a calmer moment in his own emotional life and decided at that point to speak more rationally to his mother, perhaps getting her on his side against Claudius. He might have told her of all the evidence that Claudius murdered her husband, and perhaps the two could have denounced Claudius together.

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Hamlet does in fact confront his mother, in Act III, Scene 4, and lambasts her for marrying Claudius, who is a pale reflection of his father. He expresses disgust at what he calls incest, accusing her of living in:

...the rank sweat of an enseamed bed,(100) 
Stew'd in corruption, honeying and making love 
Over the nasty sty!

She has betrayed his father's memory by marrying his uncle so quickly, a fact he makes clear even before he tells her that Claudius was guilty of the murder of King Hamlet.

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I do not think it would be a pleasant conversation, first of all. Hamlet is unlikely to see Gertrude's point of view. He isn't going to consider her an innocent victim. He blames her, but what could she have done?

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