What are the differences between Hamlet and Claudius in act 1, scene 4?

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Hamlet and Claudius are very different characters. Hamlet is brooding and melancholy, while Claudius is a party animal who can't wait to get back to his next banquet.

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Hamlet is still brooding over the death of his father. He suspects that Claudius had something to do with it, but until he encounters the Ghost, he doesn't know for sure. Claudius wants Hamlet to man-up and snap out of his mood of despondency. He's the king now; and...

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though he doesn't expect his nephew and stepson to love him, he does insist on the loyalty and respect that's his due as king of Denmark.

Just before Hamlet meets the Ghost, he's out there in the freezing cold air, idling along the battlements of Elsinore with Horatio. In the distance, there's a big party going on. The king and his court are up all night, dancing, drinking, and singing; Claudius is clearly in a partying mood. And why not? He has quite a lot to celebrate. Having murdered his brother, he's taken both his wife and his kingdom. But Hamlet's mood couldn't be more different. He's as miserable as ever. And when he finds out from the Ghost what Claudius did to his father, he's going to be even more despondent, but it'll be despondency tinged with anger and a desire for revenge.

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In this scene, we learn about Claudius' character from the conversation Hamlet has with his friend, Horatio.  Horatio has brought Hamlet along with him in the dead of night in order that his friend might see the apparition of his father, the king, whom his Uncle Claudius had murdered. 

Before the ghost appears, the two friends hear the sounds of trumpets and merriment:

The king doth wake tonight and takes his rouse,Keeps wassail, and the swaggering up-spring reels;And as he drains his draughts of Renish down,The kettle-drum and trumpet thus bray out

The triumph of his pledge (1.4.9-13)

Hamlet explains that the king is partying rather than sleeping ("wassail" is an alcoholic drink) and "reels" are a wild German dance.)   In the last line here, the king has drained his cup after making a toast. 

Cladius' behavior stands in stark contrast to the somber and just King Hamlet.  Claudius' behavior is even more appalling when he has come to the throne so treacherously. 

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