Identify a "cause and effect" speech in act 4 of Hamlet reflecting social, cultural, or economic values.

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I can think of two such speeches in act IV of Hamlet. The first is delivered by Hamlet himself after an encounter with Fortinbras and his army, a threat to Denmark, in scene IV. The monologue begins, "How all occasions do inform against me/And spur me in my dull revenge!" meaning that everything he sees and encounters makes it clear to him that he is wrong in his inaction and urges him onward towards revenge. This is the speech where Hamlet finally really forms his resolve to follow through on avenging his father. We see this resolve form in real time as he talks it through. The cause and effect at work here is Hamlet comparing himself to Fortinbras—who is in many ways his double as he is also a prince and also lost his father—and letting that unflattering comparison drive him to action.

The second speech that might work for your purposes is King Claudius in IV.V, which begins "O this is the poison of deep grief; it springs/All from her father's death." This speech is less famous and less important to the plot, but it deals more explicitly with cause and effect, outlining every tragedy that has recently occurred as a possible explanation for Ophelia's madness.

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There are really only two great "speeches" in Act IV of Hamlet, one by Hamlet and one by the King.  The King's speech, in IV.5, which begins "O, this is the poison of deep grief," gives a sort of synopsis of the situation at this point in the play.  Hamlet's speech in IV.4, lines 32 through the end, is probably more what you're after.  This is the speech with the lines

"Rightly to be great

Is not to stir without great argument,

But greatly to find quarrel in a straw

When honor's at the stake."

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