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First, you have to define the human condition. And this is no easy task. Generally speaking, a condition is the state of being, appearance, quality or working order. A condition, in medical contexts, can mean a state of health or disease. The human condition deals with the state of being human. You tend to see the human condition expressed in terms of the search for meaning, facing mortality, dealing with loneliness, relationships and the limitations of freedom. 

It's a very broad topic. The human condition is something we all face, so it is different for each person, even though it is supposedly a universal quality, something that pertains to all humans. Another way of putting it is, for the individual, the human condition concerns what it means to be alive and, socially, what it means to be with others. And this manifests in different ways: how we see the world, how politics and economics affects our lives, etc.

Hamlet deals with a lot of these broad philosophical themes. In fact, in the “to be or not to be” speech in Act 3 Scene 1, Hamlet directly addresses a fundamental and profound question on the human condition: is it better to live and face life's struggles or is it wiser to distance yourself or even commit suicide. Clearly, Hamlet is at his most desperate here, contemplating suicide. He is so obsessed with grief, anger, and his plan for revenge that he has lost all enjoyment in life. The state is in at this point, his condition and the condition of Denmark (“rotten”) is deplorable to be sure. But Hamlet has allowed himself to become mired in it to the point that he is quite desperate. In the end, he chooses to live at least to carry out his revenge. And despite the fact that his only reason for living is to avenge his father, he does at least face his condition rather than run (suicide) from it. That is, he decides to take the “noble” route and deal with his, and Denmark's, condition:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or take arms against a sea of troubles,

And by opposing, end them. (III.iii.57-59).

Begrudgingly, Hamlet does choose life. At least for the sake of exposing Claudius, Hamlet decides that it is nobler to deal with unfortunate events than it is to "end them," meaning to ignore them or avoid them altogether by ending his life.

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In what ways does Hamlet explore the human condition? What aspects of life and death does the play explore?

The character of Hamlet exhibits a great deal of interiority, meaning he reflects deeply on the meaning of life. For this reason, he has often been called the first modern hero.

Through him, the play explores the meaning of life. As the play opens, Hamlet's entire world has been upended. His beloved father is dead, his mother has rapidly remarried his uncle (a man Hamlet despises), and the two seem determined to thwart his desire to grieve. To make everything worse, Hamlet meets his father's ghost and learns that Claudius murdered his father. The ghost directs Hamlet to avenge his death.

From this point on, Hamlet is besieged with questions of meaning. What is his purpose? He doesn't want to be alive in a world in which a brother is capable of murdering a brother to get his throne; he also doesn't want to be an agent of revenge. He doesn't even know whether the ghost is really his father or an agent of Satan tempting him to kill an innocent man. Why has his world become so dark? Is it better to be alive or be dead? Hamlet dreams of suicide as a way out of his pain and seemingly overwhelming problems. But is that really better than life? What if he goes to hell?

The human condition refers to the questions we all ask about our lives—and Hamlet, as noted above, asks many of these. He also asks: Why is the world so evil? Why does Denmark seem so rotten and cancerous? Why are we born if we are just going to die? he wonders as he looks at Yorick's skull. How do we know what is true? If caught between two ethical systems, how do we decide what to do? Should Hamlet adhere to the bloodthirsty revenge ethic that requires a son to avenge his father or to the Christian ethic of forgiveness? Is Fortinbras right to march an army into Denmark and risk so many lives to recapture a few feet of soil?

Hamlet struggles with all of these until the end of the play. At that point, believing he was providentially saved from death in England, he comes to trust that God has the universe firmly under control, and that he, Hamlet will die when it is his time. This allows him to face his end—as well as his task of killing Claudius—with equanimity.

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