In Hamlet, how does Hamlet avenge his father's death?

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To add to what Mrs. Campbell has already stated in her response to you (which is an excellent summary of the revenge plot and the way that it is ultimately carried out) there is also a bit of social commentary here on the theme of revenge as a whole. In the end, as noted, "everybody" dies - Gertrude, Claudie, and Hamlet. Therefore, revenge is served toward the murderer (Claudius), the "adulteress" (in a sense, although only in that she was married to her husband's killer) and to Hamlet himself who has murdered as well. It is a no-win situation, as is often the case when it comes to revenge. This is what makes the play a tragedy. The "hero" cannot win. He either fails to act (not very heroic) or he acts and becomes a sinner in his own right. Revenge poses a complicated moral dilemma!

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The simple answer to the question is that he kills Claudius (his uncle, who had killed his father).  However, this doesn't happen until the very end of the play, and only after Hamlet spends most of the play procrastinating that very action.  Specifically, he is in a swordfight with Laertes, who Claudius has conspired with to kill Hamlet.  Laertes has poisoned the tip of his sword so that when it cuts Hamlet it is a guranteed kill.  Claudius, however, has also poisoned some wine, that he plans on giving Hamlet in a toast.  So, Hamlet is being attacked from multiple directions.  Unfortunately, Gertrude (Hamlet's mother), drinks from the poisoned wine and dies; Hamlet realizes what happened, and stabs Claudius, finally.  Hamlet, Laertes, Claudius and Gertrude all die in that final battle--classic Shakespearian tragedy.

The ghost told Hamlet to enact his revenge in the opening scenes of the play; Hamlet wants to make sure that Claudius did in fact kill his father, so sets about trying to figure it out.  He also hums and haws over killing someone, and passes up numerous chances to kill Claudius throughout the play.  It isn't until the end, after he has resolved to stop "unpacking [his] heart with words," that he finally decides to act, and that is when everyone dies.  I hope that those thoughts helped; good luck!

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How did Hamlet discover the death of his father and how did he avenge?

Hamlet actually discovers the death of his father before the play begins, while he is away at school in Wittenberg. Maybe you mean to ask how Hamlet discovers the nature of his father's death. Contrary to the story that was put out to the public, which stated that King Hamlet was bitten by a snake while napping in his garden, Hamlet is told by none other than his father's ghost that he was actually murdered by his brother Claudius (Hamlet's uncle). He then spends the entire rest of the play trying to work up the nerve to avenge his father, finally doing so in the final scene, in which he first stabs his uncle with a poison-tipped sword (which had been meant for him), and then finishes the job by making him swallow poisoned wine (also meant for him).

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