Does Hamlet's morality drive his actions in Hamlet or is it something else?

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This is an interesting question and probably has to be answered with a "but," as in "yes, but...." We are almost always moved to act--or refrain from acting--by multiple things rather than just one thing, and the same is undoubtedly true of Hamlet in William Shakespeare's Hamlet. There is ample evidence that Hamlet has a strong sense of morality which drives his actions in this play; when his moralities clash, Hamlet is indecisive and hesitates to act. Ultimately this indecision costs many lives, including his own. Having a strong morality does not make Hamlet weak; in fact, it serves as his guide about when to act and how throughout the play. 

One of Hamlet's moral values is friendship. He is a loyal friend and he expects his friends to be loyal in return. Horatio is an example of a true friend, and Hamlet respects and trusts him enough to confide in him. Horatio is the only person in the play to whom Hamlet speaks freely, evidence that this is a true friendship. When two other friends betray him by spying on him for Claudius, Hamlet has no compunction about sending them to a prompt and certain death. He acts based on his moral code.

Another of Hamlet's moral values is loyalty. Because he loves Ophelia, he tries to warn her to leave ("get thee to a nunnery") and to dissuade her from loving him. Unfortunately, he is not clear enough with her about his reason for doing this and Ophelia commits suicide, but he did try. Gertrude, on the other hand, is not loyal in Hamlet's view, and he is merciless with her, someone he has loved for many more years than he loved Ophelia. Once again, he is not afraid to act.

Hamlet values family, as well. When his father's ghost asks him to avenge his murder, Hamlet readily agrees out of love for his father. When his mother "repents" of her sin of marrying Claudius, he forgives her and even confides the truth to her that he is only "mad in craft."

Hamlet values life, both his own and others'. He contemplates suicide but cannot do it because he believes in God's laws.

O, that this too too solid flesh would melt
Thaw and resolve itself into a dew!
Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd
His canon 'gainst self-slaughter! 

He hesitates many times to kill Claudius for a similar reason; he knows that killing a king, even a king who usurped the throne, puts his own eternity at risk.

Finally, Hamlet values justice. When he finally has the confirmation he needs to be certain Claudius was the one who murdered his father, Hamlet still hesitates because Claudius appears to be making his confession, and Claudius's death at that moment is not a fair exchange for his own father's death which occurred before he could make his last confession. It is not weakness or indecision but his sense of justice which keeps Hamlet from acting then. As soon as he catches someone he presumes is Claudius spying on him in Gertrude's chamber (an unconfessed sin), Hamlet is quick to act; unfortunately, he kills the wrong man. When his morality allows him, however, Hamlet is not afraid to act. 

It is true that Hamlet's actions often make him look erratic and his inactions make him look indecisive; however, he does appear to act pretty consistently within his own moral code throughout the play. While Hamlet's moral code is actually praiseworthy, people die because he follows it. His actions and inactions, all based on his morality, are the cause of trouble in this play, but it is trouble he did not initiate, choose, or want.

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Why is Hamlet's morality not responsible for driving his actions throughout William Shakespeare's Hamlet?

While a perfectly reasonable case can be made (as you know) that Hamlet's primary motivation throughout William Shakespeare's Hamlet is his morality, an equally strong case can be made that the only motivation Hamlet has for doing anything in this play is how he feels at the time. Emotions rather than morality or reason, then, are what drive Hamlet's actions.

We know that Hamlet is an emotional person the first time we meet him. He is dramatically mourning his father's death as well as his mother's "o'erhasty marriage" to Claudius. He is criticized by Claudius and his own mother for dragging on too long in his mourning, and his first soliloquy reflects his emotional plea to be able to quit this world (a constant theme for him).

Every major interaction in this play reflects his emotional decision-making, including his primary decision to avenge his father's murder. Hamlet's interactions with the Ghost are all emotional rather than rational. Unlike Horatio, Hamlet immediately believes it is his father's ghost and follows it, heedless of his friends' warnings. He listens to the Ghost's story and rashly promises to avenge his father's murder:

Yea, from the table of my memory
I'll wipe away all trivial fond records,
All saws of books, all forms, all pressures past,
That youth and observation copied there;
And thy commandment all alone shall live
Within the book and volume of my brain,
Unmix'd with baser matter: yes, by heaven!

Even Hamlet's choice to "put an antic disposition on" speaks more of emotion than reason or morality. His response to the Ghost is not moral or rational, but emotional and dramatic; this is exactly why he doubts himself (and is therefore so indecisive) so often throughout the play.

His relationship with Ophelia is based on emotion rather than reason, for he has to know, as Laertes says, that his choice of a wife will not be his to make. When he talks to her alone, he expresses all kinds of emotions: he is angry, protective, contrary, loving, suspicious, and scolding. It is obvious that his emotions control this interaction, and his emotions are all over the place. The result is a confused and heartbroken girl who kills herself soon after this encounter.

His interactions with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern during the course of the play are solely based on emotions. He is happy to see them, he is furious that they conspired against him with Claudius, and he gleefully sentences them to death with his pen. 

Hamlet rashly stabs Polonius while venting his emotions on Gertrude.

Hamlet is moved by drama and assumes the same will be true for Claudius. One of the least rational things Hamlet does is decide to present a play and watch Claudius's face. Though ironically it gives him the final confirmation he needs to kill Claudius, it is a plan based solely on two people's emotions: his and Claudius's.

Hamlet's near-brawl in Ophelia's grave is full of emotion and gives Claudius exactly the ammunition he needs to prod Laertes into killing Hamlet for him. In the final scene, we applaud those emotions because Hamlet finally achieves his goal and kills Claudius, but we mourn what is lost because of the emotion-driven journey Hamlet took to get there. 

Horatio is Hamlet's foil, even-keeled and rational; Hamlet knows he is driven by his emotions and seeks his friend's counsel--though he rarely heeds Horatio's advice. Though he does avenge his father's death, Hamlet's emotion-based choices do significant damage to everyone around him. 

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