In December, 1877, after the moderately successful production of The Sorcerer had begun, W. S. Gilbert offered his musical collaborator, Arthur Seymour Sullivan, a libretto for a new comic opera, with a note appended: “I have very little doubt whatever but that you will be pleased with it.” Sullivan was indeed pleased, and although he was suffering intense pain from a kidney disorder, he composed the music rapidly. On the evening of May 25, 1878, three nights after The Sorcerer completed its run, the Comedy Opera Company presented H.M.S. Pinafore, which was to become one of the great triumphs of the musical theater.
The opening performance of H.M.S. Pinafore was nearly a failure. Some scandal attached to the character of Sir Joseph, who was clearly a satirical portrait of Sir William H. Smith, a publisher appointed by Queen Victoria as First Lord of the Admiralty. The first season of the production languished during the June heat. Most affluent Londoners vacationed outside the city, and the cast and chorus, threatened with cancellation of the whole production, agreed to accept a cut of one-third of their salaries. Eventually, however, H.M.S. Pinafore began to attract a following. The Savoy Company, under D’Oyly Carte, performing at such theaters as the (English) Opéra Comique, the Imperial, and the Olympic, enjoyed a London run of two years.
Almost concurrently, H.M.S. Pinafore was performed in pirated and often poorly staged...
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