(Feminism in Literature)

H. D. is best known as an exemplar of Imagism, the first important movement in twentieth-century poetry and a precursor of literary Modernism. As formulated by Ezra Pound, Imagism rejected conventional verse forms and upheld the image as the primary source of poetic expression. While H. D. gradually abandoned the movement's principles to accommodate her interest in mythology, occultism, and psychoanalysis, critical attention during her lifetime remained focused on her Imagist works and their revelations concerning her association with such prominent intellectuals as Pound, Richard Aldington, D. H. Lawrence, and Sigmund Freud. In recent years, however, scholars have more fully explored H. D.'s quest to define herself as an artist and to create in her later works a female mythology based on classical sources.


Hilda Doolittle was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to an academic family with ties to the Moravian and Puritan faiths. She attended Bryn Mawr College for two years, during which time she became friends with the poets Marianne Moore and William Carlos Williams. In 1907 H. D. became engaged to Ezra Pound, whom she had met at the age of fifteen. Although they did not marry, their intermittent relationship drew H. D. to London, where Pound had settled in 1908. She actively participated in the city's literary scene, associating with D. H. Lawrence, May Sinclair, W. B. Yeats, and Richard Aldington, whom she married in 1913. That same year Pound arranged for the publication of several of H. D.'s poems in Poetry magazine. Submitted under the name "H. D., Imagiste," the poems "Hermes of the Ways," "Priapus," and "Epigram" embodied Pound's concept of Imagism, which incorporated elements from classical Greek lyrics, Japanese haiku, and French symbolism. Following the appearance of these poems, which were hailed as revolutionary by reviewers, H. D. assumed a leading role in the Imagist movement. During World War I she replaced Aldington as the literary editor of the Egoist, a forum for Imagist writers, and was a major contributor to Des Imagistes: An Anthology, a collection of Imagist poetry edited by Pound and published in 1915. When Pound abandoned Imagism following the publication of this volume, H. D. and Aldington, in conjunction with Amy Lowell, led and further developed the movement, arranging the publication of three succeeding Imagist anthologies.

In 1918 H. D. separated from Aldington and began living with the novelist Winifred Ellerman, who wrote under the pseudonym Bryher. They traveled extensively after the birth of H. D.'s daughter in 1919, visiting Italy, Greece, and Egypt before settling in Switzerland. In 1933 and 1934 H. D. underwent psychoanalysis with Sigmund Freud, a process that proved pivotal in her artistic development. She resolved many of her feelings concerning her bisexuality and her difficulties with writer's block. Psychoanalysis also prompted her to view her personal experiences as part of a universal pattern that linked her to women throughout the ages and to regard her poetry as the key to understanding that pattern. In 1956 she published her recollections of this period in Tribute to Freud, which Vincent Quinn characterized as essentially "a self-portrait brought into focus by her confrontation with Freud." H. D. later developed an interest in mysticism and esoteric religions, particularly those which emphasize the strength and independence of matriarchal figures. The poems she wrote during World War II while residing in Great Britain reflect these concerns. After the war she returned to Switzerland, where she wrote her third major work of fiction, Bid Me to Live (A Madrigal) (1960), a semi-autobiographical account of her life in London in the 1920s. In 1960 she became the first woman to receive the Award of Merit Medal from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. She died in 1961.


During the 1920s H. D. established herself as an important Imagist poet with the publication of the collections Hymen (1921) and Heliodora, and Other Poems (1924) and began to experiment more widely with different genres and techniques. For example, Palimpsest (1926) and Hedylus (1928), nominally considered novels though they defy easy categorization, evince H. D.'s development of her narrative voice, particularly her use of flash-backs and stream-of-consciousness monologues. H. D.'s verse, especially that collected in Sea Garden (1916), Hymen, and Heliodora, epitomized the practices of Imagism, which included the use of concrete, sensual images, common speech, concision, and the creation of new rhythms, intended to produce, according to the Imagist credo, "poetry that is hard and clear, never blurred nor indefinite." Her poems of this era, including "Oread" and "Garden," have been widely anthologized, and the publication of her Collected Poems in 1925 inextricably linked H. D. with the Imagist movement. H. D., however, once observed: "One writes the kind of poetry one likes. Other people put labels on it. Imagism was something that was important for poets learning their craft early in this century. But after learning his craft, the poet will find his true direction."

H. D.'s experimentation beyond the tenets of Imagism has drawn increasing attention from critics, particularly feminist scholars. In the verse following Collected Poems, she employed increasingly complex rhymes and rhythms and ultimately rejected the predominantly visual imagery characteristic of her early work in favor of phonetic and rhythmic effects to recreate moods and objects. Her "war trilogy," which includes the volumes The Walls Do Not Fall (1944), Tribute to the Angels (1945), and The Flowering of the Rod (1946), was inspired by the realities of living in war-torn London during World War II and presents the "Goddess," or mother-symbol, as a means of transcending the horrors of war and attaining spiritual wholeness and self-realization. H. D.'s last major work, Helen in Egypt (1961), is a book-length combination of poetry and prose that embodies the philosophical and aesthetic concerns that dominated her later work. Rejecting the traditional male focus of such epics as The Iliad and The Odyssey, H. D. concentrated on Helen of Troy and her efforts as an exile in Egypt to come to terms with her past and to forge an independent self-identity. Many commentators contend that this work and those that followed the Collected Poems are her best, although a few maintain that she broadened her range at the expense of the clarity and conciseness that had been her trademark as the quintessential Imagist poet.


H. D. has been recognized as a leading figure in the movement of Imagism and an important influence on modern poetry. Yet despite her prominent position in modern letters, several feminist critics have asserted that the critical neglect of her work is due to her gender and the fact that she wrote poetry about the struggles and concerns of women. Such scholars have praised her efforts to rescue women's stories from a masculine literary tradition, her questioning of masculine definitions of women, and her challenging of established gender roles. Commentators have also lauded her exploration of her own identity as a woman and author and her attempts to redefine literary traditions with a women's voice. In recent years, there has been increasing critical attention to H. D.'s oeuvre, particularly from feminist commentators. She has earned praise for her technical achievements, her poignant portrayals of her personal struggles, and the beauty of her work. H. D. has often been referred to as "the perfect Imagist" and is viewed as one of the major poets of the twentieth century.

Principal Works

(Feminism in Literature)

Sea Garden (poetry) 1916

Hymen (poetry) 1921

Heliodora and Other Poems (poetry) 1924

Collected Poems of H. D. (poetry) 1925

Palimpsest (novel) 1926

Hedylus (novel) 1928

Red Roses for Bronze (poetry) 1931

Kora and Ka (novel) 1934

The Walls Do Not Fall (poetry) 1944

Tribute to the Angels (poetry) 1945

The Flowering of the Rod (poetry) 1946

By Avon River (poetry and prose) 1949

Tribute to Freud (memoir) 1956

Selected Poems of H. D. (poetry) 1957

Bid Me to Live (A Madrigal) (novel) 1960

Helen in Egypt (poetry and prose) 1961

* Hermetic Definition (poetry) 1972

Trilogy: The Walls Do Not Fall, Tribute to Angels, The Flowering of the Rod (poetry) 1973

End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Pound (memoir) 1979

HERmione (memoir) 1981

The Gift (memoir) 1982

* This work includes the long poems Winter Love, Sagesse, and Vale Ave.

† This work includes "Hilda's Book," a collection of poems by Ezra Pound.

Primary Sources

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Doolittle, Hilda. "Chapter One." In HERmione, pp. 3-8. New York: New Directions Publishing, 1981.

In the following excerpt from HERmione, a posthumously published novel, Doolittle opens the autobiographical work with a detailed inner portrait describing the mindset and torturous feelings experienced by protagonist Her (Hermione) Gart.



Her Gart went round in circles. "I am Her," she said to herself; she repeated, "Her, Her, Her," Her Gart tried to hold on to something; drowning she gasped, she caught at a smooth surface,...

(The entire section is 1704 words.)

Susan Friedman (Essay Date March 1975)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Friedman, Susan. "Who Buried H. D.?: A Poet, Her Critics, and Her Place in 'The Literary Tradition.'" College English 36, no. 7 (March 1975): 801-14.

In the following essay, Friedman contends that "as a woman writing about women, H. D. explored the untold half of the human story, and by that act she set herself outside of the established tradition."

H. D. is a major twentieth-century poet who all too often receives the response "H. D.?—who's he?" When people are reminded that "H. D." was the pen name for Hilda Doolittle, it is generally remembered that she was one of those imagist poets...

(The entire section is 7641 words.)

Diana Collecott (Essay Date Spring 1985)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Collecott, Diana. “Remembering Oneself: The Reputation and Later Poetry of H. D.” Critical Quarterly 27, no. 1 (spring 1985): 7-22.

In the following essay, Collecott investigates the critical neglect of H. D’s work and the poet’s recent rediscovery by female writers and critics.

Not to forget the forenames of presence. Labour: Clarice. The labour of un-forgetting, of un-silencing, of un-earthing, of unblinding and undeafening oneself …

—Hélène Cixous, Vivre l’Orange (1979)


For half a century there has been an absence among...

(The entire section is 6585 words.)

Erika Rohrbach (Essay Date 1996)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Rohrbach, Erika.“H. D. and Sappho: ‘A Precious Inch of Palimpsest.’” In Re-Reading Sappho: Reception and Transmission, edited by Ellen Greene, pp. 184-98. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996.

In the following essay, Rohrbach examines H. D.’s identification with the classical female poet Sappho.

Like all deeply famous figures, Sappho keeps her anonymity. I do not mean this in the sense that Sappho is no one; rather, she could be anyone. Having borne witness to the 1890s ‘boom of interest in her, modernists were well aware of the interpretative leeway that Sappho’s ambiguous...

(The entire section is 6298 words.)


(Feminism in Literature)


SOURCE: Beck, Joyce Lorraine. "Dea, Awakening: A Reading of H. D.'s Trilogy." San Jose Studies 8, no. 2 (spring 1982): 59-70.

In the following essay, Beck finds Trilogy to be a noteworthy feminist work because it exhibits an emerging spiritual consciousness and awareness embodied and symbolized in a central female figure, the Awakening Dea.

H. D., Hilda Doolittle Aldington, is best known as the co-founder—with T. E. Hulme, Ezra Pound, and others—of the pre-World War I English Imagist movement in poetry....

(The entire section is 3982 words.)

Helen of Troy

(Feminism in Literature)


SOURCE: Gelpi, Albert. "Hilda in Egypt." Southern Review 18, no. 2 (April 1982): 233-50.

In the following essay, Gelpi describes H. D.'s Helen in Egypt as "a final and climactic efflorescence of creative energy."

H. D. always wrote her own personal and psychological dilemma against and within the political turmoil of the twentieth century, the toils of love enmeshed in the convulsions of war. Her marriage to and separation from Richard Aldington turn on World War I, and that concatenation of private and public trauma stands...

(The entire section is 6268 words.)

Further Reading

(Feminism in Literature)


Boughn, Michael. H. D.: A Bibliography, 1905-1990. Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1993, 229 p.

Essential primary and secondary bibliography.


Guest, Barbara. Herself Defined: The Poet H. D. and Her World. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984, 360 p.

Seeks to define the enigmatic life and work of H. D., providing a view into her lifelong search for self.


Buck, Claire. H. D. and...

(The entire section is 842 words.)