Sample Essay Outlines
The following paper topics are designed to test your understanding of the work as a whole and to analyze important themes and literary devices. Following each question is a sample outline to get you started.
Swift was known as an ironist. Show how Swift uses irony in the book to strengthen the points he is making.
I. Thesis Statement: In the book, Swift uses irony to strengthen the points he is making.
II. The point that politics is corrupt
A. Statesman as acrobats in Lilliput
B. The King of Brobdingnag’s disgust at Gulliver’s description of England
C. The ghosts in Luggnag
D. The dapple-gray’s disgust at Gulliver’s description of England
III. The point that human beings are vain
A. The jealousy that causes Gulliver’s fall in Lilliput
B. The jealousy of the dwarfs in Brobdingnag
C. The vanity of the empty ideas of the scientists in Laputa
D. Gulliver’s own vanity in thinking he understands everything about human beings and about reason after living among the Houyhnhms
E. Gulliver’s criticisms of colonization in the last chapter
IV. Conclusion: Gulliver uses a variety of occasions and techniques to make his points through the use of irony.
Who is the hero, in the sense of most sympathetic character, in Gulliver’s Travels? Is it Gulliver, the Houyhnhms, or the King of Brobdingnag?
I. Thesis Statement: There are sympathetic characters in Gulliver’s Travels, but most have flaws; the King of Brobdingnag has the fewest flaws.
II. Gulliver has the flaws of naiveté and vanity
A. His naive cooperation in all cases
B. His oversimplified ideas that all humans are equally bad and all Houyhnhms are equally good
a. Feels little gratitude to Mendez
b. Is disgusted by his own family
a. The dapple-gray and the sorrel are more sym¬pathe¬tic to him
b. The council is very unsympathetic; Gulliver does not really realize the differences
C. His excessive eagerness to leave his family and go on more voyages even after they turn out disastrously
III. The Houyhnhms are coldly logical and inhuman
A. They think themselves flawless and perfect
B. Their inhuman attitude to the family
C. Their inhuman attitude to death
IV. The King of Brobdingnag is the most sympathetic character
A. His interest in and sympathy to Gulliver
B. His disgust at European institutions and inventions such as firearms
C. His society is flawed but human, unlike that of the Houyhnhms
D. However, he does laugh when Gulliver just escapes from mortal danger
V. Conclusion: The King of Brobdingnag is the most sympathetic character in Gulliver’s Travels, although Gulliver thinks otherwise
Swift is famous for his use of linguistic devices, such as the sound of words and the use of lists, to strengthen the atmosphere of parts of his book and to make points. Write an essay discussing the use of these techniques in Gulliver’s Travels.
I. Thesis Statement: In the book, Swift uses the sounds of words to strengthen his atmospheric effects and tone. He also uses lists, to make polemical points and to increase the effectiveness of ideas he is expressing.
II. The sounds of words to establish atmospheric effects
A. Soft-sounding words, using many vowels, to indicate smallness or abstractedness
1. Smallness: Lilliput, Blefuscu, Nardac
2. Delicacy and abstractedness: Laputa, Balnibarbi
a. The Language of Laputa, says Gulliver, sounds like Italian
B. Words using many consonants placed together to indicate largeness
1. Brobdingnag, Glumdalclitch
C. Words sound like the neighing of horses to indicate “rational horses”
1. Houyhnhm, Yahoo
III. The use of lists to establish argumentative points and to increase the effectiveness of Swift’s ideas
A. Lists to indicate the clash between cultures
1. The list of Gulliver’s belongings made by the Lilliputians
2. The list of Gulliver’s duties in the agreement with the Lilliputians providing for his freedom
B. Lists to indicate political corruption and human frailty
1. The list of human customs spoken by the King of...
(The entire section is 1,006 words.)