Armstrong, Adrian. “The Testament of François Villon.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval French Literature, edited by Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Provides a detailed analysis of the poem.
Burl, Aubrey. Danse Macabre: François Villon—Poetry and Murder in Medieval France. Stroud, England: Sutton, 2000. Well-received biography of Villon, focusing on the contrast between his sad, tragic life and the genius of his poetry. The extracts from Villon’s work are presented in French, with uncensored English translation.
Fein, David A. François Villon and His Reader. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1989. Approaches The Great Testament as a reader-oriented work. Seeks to identify the work’s original audience and to compare that audience with later readers. Focuses on the aspects of The Great Testament that call for reader interaction.
_______. François Villon Revisited. New York: Twayne, 1997. Provides a biographical sketch of Villon and explication of his poetry, devoting three chapters to the sites, characters, and ballades in The Great Testament. Points out patterns of language, themes, changing voices, and other elements of Villon’s poetry.
Freeman, Michael. François Villon in His Works: The Villain’s Tale. Amsterdam:...
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