How do the descriptions shown in items (i)-(viii) work in relation to describing a part, whole, member, or category? For each one, decide whether it is

(a)   by mention of the part to stand for the whole;

(b)   by mention of a member to stand for the category;

(c)   by mention of the whole to stand for the part;

(d)   by mention of the category to stand for a member;

(e)   by mention of a member of one category to stand for a member of another (metaphor).

(i)    wheels (car)

(ii)   artillery (revolver)

(iii)   in black and white (published)

(iv)  the feline (tiger)

(v)   on his feet (making a speech)

(vi)  a V neck (sweater)

(vii) she wears the trousers (she dominates)

(viii) goddesses (Hollywood actresses)

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The first task to completing this assignment is understanding exactly what (a) through (e) are referring to. That means we need to understand the terms "part," "whole," "member," and "category," which can be tricky as some of their meanings can overlap. While we won't have space to go over all of (i) through (viii), below are a few ideas to help get you started.

Looking at the words given in (i) through (viii), it seems the best way to understand the term "part" is as a "piece" or "fragment" of a larger whole (Random House Dictionary). For example, looking at (i), a car is a larger whole, and the wheels of a car are a small piece of a car that are needed for the car to be in working condition. Another example of a "part to stand for a whole" (a), or a part of a whole, could be the battery of a car.

Also, looking at the words given, it seems best to define "member" as any being, such as a "person, animal, plant, group, etc.," that is part of a larger body, such as a society, community, or category (Random House Dictionary). In addition, the term "category," should be understood as a general "division" or a "class" (Random House Dictionary). For example, looking at (vi), a V-neck is a type of a sweater, specifically a sweater with a neckline that's shaped like the letter "V." Hence, a V-neck would be a member of the larger class, or category, of sweater, which means that the word V-neck describes a sweater "by mention of a member to stand for the category" (b).

To complete this assignment, it will also be necessary for you to understand the given definition of a metaphor. In a traditional sense, we understand a metaphor to be a way of describing something by comparing it to something else. An example can be seen in the phrase, "Her love is a red, red rose." Here, the author is likening love to the beauty of a rose by saying that her love is a rose, thereby comparing her love to a rose. Here, letter (e) is defining a metaphor as a "member of one category" that is being used to represent the "member of another category," which is exactly identical to our standard definition of a metaphor--we describe one thing by saying it is another. Take a look at (v) as an example. If we describe a man as being "on his feet," we are not literally saying that he is "making a speech," right? But according to (v) we can understand the phrase "on his feet" to mean that he is "making a speech," even if this is not the literal meaning of the phrase. Hence, since "on his feet" is being used in a figurative sense to describe a man as literally making a speech, we can see clearly that the phrase "on his feet" is a member of the larger category of physical descriptive terms and being used to stand for "making a speech," which is a member of the larger category of public speaking. Hence, (v) is a perfect example of a metaphor (e). In another sense, these selections also relate to metonymy, where the general stands for the specific (White House for the current presidential government; goddess for an actress), and synecdoche, where the part relates to the whole (hands to mean sailors on shipboard; wheels for car).

As you go through the rest of the assignment, it will be helpful to look up any words you are unfamiliar with and think about how they relate to what is next to them in parentheses. [If the PDF fails to open, for the Jonh Haynes PDF Style (Rutledge) file, click the "Download File" button on the Aramaic page to open the English PDF.]

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