Graham Swift Biography

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(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Graham Colin Swift is one of England’s important contemporary novelists. Born in London in 1949, he did not directly experience the momentous events of the Depression-ridden 1930’s, World War II, or the difficult postwar problems of social and economic recovery, but his work has consistently concerned itself with history and its subtle influences. Swift, whose father was a government civil servant, attended Dulwich College in London, where he had been preceded half a century before by two other noted writers, Raymond Chandler and P. G. Wodehouse. He graduated with a bachelor’s degree from the University of Cambridge in 1970 and received his master’s from the same university in 1975. He also attended the University of York. From the mid-1970’s until the success of his third novel, Waterland, published in 1983, he was a part-time English instructor in London. His first novel, The Sweet Shop Owner, was published in 1980, and his subsequent work has won for Swift much praise and many awards. Waterland was one of the finalists for the prestigious Booker Prize and was named by The Guardian as the best English novel of 1983.

The Sweet Shop Owner contains a number of themes which have continued to occupy Swift. Willy Chapman, the protagonist, is the long-standing proprietor of a small London shop. His wife, now dead, married Willy to spite and to escape her family and provided the funds and the initial discipline that made the shop successful. The novel takes place on the last day of Chapman’s life, and Swift illuminates Chapman’s story by a series of flashbacks to his own history and to the relations with his wife and his estranged daughter, all governed by the long-established currents and rhythms of his ordered existence. On his last day, Willy—suffering from heart disease—rebels against those rhythms in the futile hope and expectation that his daughter will return. Personal history rather than the usual history of war and politics infuses the story; family relationships, or the lack of them, provide the story’s focus; and alienation, personal and familial, and its unrequited quest for healing, is the overriding theme.

These concerns continue to dominate Swift’s work. His second novel, Shuttlecock, published in 1981, is also a history of personal and familial alienation. Prentis, like Chapman, is a cog in society’s machine, working as an archivist or researcher in the police bureaucracy; as Willy was dominated by his wife, so Prentis is subjected to his superior. Prentis’s relations with his wife and son are also strained and convoluted. Again history and its permeability play a part in the story of Prentis’s father, ostensibly a war hero who in reality was perhaps the opposite. There is no resolution to the problems raised in the novel, however, and the questions asked remain unanswered. In 1982 Swift published a series of short stories in Learning to Swim, and Other Stories. Swift wrote the stories before any of his novels, and they announce, in miniature, many of his characteristic themes. For example, “Learning to Swim” relates the tale of an unsatisfactory marriage, and in “The Watch” Swift tells a magical story of time and history.

Waterland was the novel that captured the attention of the critics. Swift’s tale of Tom Crick, a history teacher, and Crick’s story of his present life and past history—including the saga of his own ancestors—has been compared to the works of Charles Dickens, William Faulkner, and James Joyce. As often happens in Swift’s writings, Crick’s relationship with his childhood, his students, his wife, and the headmaster of the school where he teaches is difficult, consuming, and fated. Crick, in his fifties, is being made redundant: History is being cut back and merged with something called general studies. Yet the headmaster and the educational establishment are not being merely philistine; Crick himself has abandoned formal history—the history of the French...

(The entire section is 1,950 words.)