Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 459
On the surface, The Gold Bug Variations consists of two intertwined love stories, those of former DNA scientist Stuart Ressler and Jeanette Koss, Ressler’s married lover, and of reference librarian Jan O’Deigh, thirty-four, and art historian Franklin Todd, thirty. Powers’s title gives readers the initial wink. This book has something...
(The entire section contains 1191 words.)
Unlock This Study Guide Now
Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this The Gold Bug Variations study guide. You'll get access to all of the The Gold Bug Variations content, as well as access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.
- Critical Essays
On the surface, The Gold Bug Variations consists of two intertwined love stories, those of former DNA scientist Stuart Ressler and Jeanette Koss, Ressler’s married lover, and of reference librarian Jan O’Deigh, thirty-four, and art historian Franklin Todd, thirty. Powers’s title gives readers the initial wink. This book has something to do with Johann Sebastian Bach, the eighteenth century composer of The Goldberg Variations, and with Edgar Allan Poe, the nineteenth century author of “The Gold Bug.” Poe’s short story is cryptic; from the outset, Powers’s novel is equally cryptic.
Arcane meanings lurk in unexpected places throughout The Gold Bug Variations, making rereading the book perhaps more pleasurable than the initial reading. The novel overflows with word games and puzzles relating to numbers and to science; this is the sort of book that makes for challenging group reading and discussion.
Stuart Ressler, once a member of the University of Illinois team that cracked the code of the DNA molecule, has faded from public view. Franklin Todd knows him, however; Ressler works with Todd, a part-time computer hacker working nights. He fascinates Franklin. It is clear that Ressler, who now—apparently by choice—lives at the subsistence level, once experienced a little more than the fifteen minutes of public recognition that Andy Warhol suggested was every American’s due.
Eager to know more about Ressler, Todd enlists the aid of Jan O’Deigh, the reference librarian at the Brooklyn Branch of the New York Public Library. Tracking down information about Ressler (including his picture in a back issue of Life), Jan and Franklin become romantically entangled.
The plot of The Gold Bug Variations is told largely through Jan’s eyes, in a flood of recollections set loose when, during her lunch hour one day, she finds in her mail a brief note from Franklin announcing Ressler’s death. Through Franklin, Jan had met and come to know Ressler. Memories consume her. She quits her library job so that she can devote herself fully to ferreting out the meaning of Ressler’s life and, more broadly, of life in general.
Ressler’s work on DNA contained so many mysteries about the origins of existence that he, the accomplished scientist, suspected that anything able to create consciousness(life) was too complex for that consciousness to fathom. This suspicion caused Ressler to become an adult dropout from society, to live obscurely and ascetically, working of his own volition at a level considerably below his potential.
As in all of Powers’s writing, the plot is not the novel. The novel plays with ideas so profound and so complex that they defy brief or simplified presentation. The Gold Bug Variations richly rewards frequent rereading, spirited discussion, and imaginative interpretation.
Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 732
The title of The Gold Bug Variations provides from the outset a clue to two influences to which readers might be sensitive in reading the novel. The title suggests both Johann Sebastian Bach’s intricate musical composition The Goldberg Variations and Edgar Allan Poe’s cryptic short story “The Gold Bug.”
As in his earlier and subsequent novels, Powers is, in The Gold Bug Variations, fundamentally concerned with structure and with complex ideas that shed light on the basic underpinnings of the postmodern era. Just as Bach offered thirty Goldberg variations, Powers’s novel offers thirty chapters.
Bach’s work is based on four musical notes, four musical phrases; Powers’s novel uses the number four in many instances, perhaps the most obvious of which is that the novel focuses on two couples, four characters, and that both Jan O’Deigh and Franklin Todd and Jeanette Koss and Stuart Ressler are separated from each other in age by four years. Powers also frequently uses terms such as the four winds, the four corners of the earth, the four seasons, and the four chambers of the heart, suggesting that the number four is inherent in the universal order.
A major portion of The Gold Bug Variations is scientifically oriented and deals with the discovery of the role deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) plays in life. The double helix that is central to Stuart Ressler’s DNA research involves double pairs, fours. The intertwined lives of the novel’s two couples form a sort of human double helix.
The four lives with which Powers deals become intertwined by chance. Franklin Todd, a dropout from a doctoral program in art history, works nights in a computerized billing operation. Stuart Ressler, who works with him in a routine and menial job, reveals little about himself, but he has revealed enough about his past to pique Franklin’s interest and to make him want to know more.
In his pursuit of information about Ressler, Todd makes use of the library reference skills of Jan O’Deigh, his former lover. She tracks down an old Life magazine article containing Ressler’s picture and some tantalizing facts about his research. She, like Todd, becomes obsessed with learning more about this mysterious man who, seemingly on the scientific fast track, suddenly sinks into professional oblivion.
The novel begins near the end of its story. Jan O’Deigh rushes home during her lunch hour and finds in her morning mail a brief note, unembellished with details, from Franklin Todd telling her that Stuart Ressler, now back in Illinois, has died, presumably from lung cancer. Reading this note opens Jan’s floodgate of reminiscence, much as the madeleine dipped in hot tea unlocks memories in Marcel Proust’s À la recherche du temps perdu (1913-1927; Remembrance of Things Past, 1922-1931).
Jan, characteristically punctual, returns to work two hours late and completes her work day, fielding her patrons’ many questions. Before the day ends, however, Jan gives the requisite two-week notification that she is resigning from her position. She needs time to research the life of Stuart Ressler, whom she had come to know only slightly through Franklin Todd.
She recalls a snowy weekend she and Franklin had spent with Ressler in New Hampshire not long ago. She remembers some of the details of the philosophical conversations she and Franklin had with Stuart as they sat in the semidarkness and near silence of the computerized billing operation late at night.
Powers uses Jan’s quest for information about Stuart Ressler as a metaphor that poses broad questions about the meaning of existence, human and otherwise. Every detail of the novel is intimately concerned with questions of universal meaning. In the end, Powers seems in some ways to reflect T. S. Eliot’s contention that the world ends not with a bang but a whimper. Powers’s refinement of this sentiment is perhaps closer to the notion that whatever power created consciousness is too complex for that consciousness to comprehend.
The two love affairs in the novel are barren relationships; neither Jan nor Jeanette can bear children. When Franklin seeks to renew his love affair with Jan, she objects that a renewed relationship would be unlikely to last. In the final words of the novel’s last full chapter, Franklin asks, “Who said anything about lasting?” The intimation is that little in life is permanent, little meaningful.