Themes and Meanings

(Literary Essentials: Poets and Poetry)

“Goblin Market” established Christina Rossetti’s reputation early in her career and has remained her most famous poem. One of its principal themes deals with two kinds of love—the profane, which kills, and the spiritual, which nourishes. Pervasive in the poem is the Communion, or atonement, theme, as in “Eat me, drink me” (line 471), another hint of the atoning power of sacrificial love.

At the historical level, the poem should be understood as a tribute to Maria, her older sister, who protected her from making some kind of wrong choice at a very vulnerable time in her life, perhaps over wrongly placed affections. The manuscript itself is dedicated “To M. F. R.,” the initials of her sister. According to one version of the poem’s origins, Christina nearly eloped with a William Bell Scott, who turned out to be already married. It is known that she loved James Collinson, a painter and original member of the brotherhood, but broke her engagement when he became Catholic. The facts cannot finally be known, since the supposed elopement plan developed nine years after her turning down of Collinson.

At the literary level, it is probable that this poem is meant as Christian allegory. By this norm, Lizzie becomes a rendition of Jesus, who resisted the Temptation and gave of himself for others; at another theological level, she is an aspect of divine grace with power to effect restoration. Laura, on the other hand, emerges an Adam and Eve entity given to...

(The entire section is 608 words.)