What two lessons did Jonas learn about the sun in The Giver?

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Jonas learned the same lesson that everybody learns when they spend a day at the beach without sunscreen. Jonas learns that sunshine has a sort of Yin and Yang duality. It can bring pleasure, and it can bring pain.

It seems odd that Jonas wouldn't know this, but then again, he lives with the "Sameness." Everything is moderate, medium, and incredibly controlled. There is no hate, but there is also no joy. There isn't pain, but there also isn't pleasure. As for why Jonas wouldn't know about the sun and its warmth, the chapter also tells the reader that climate control is present for every second of people's lives now.  

"And it [the sun] came from the sky." "That's right," the old man said. "Just the way it used to."

"Before Sameness. Before Climate Control," Jonas added.

Jonas is new to being the Receiver, so the Giver starts with an easy lesson about pleasure and pain. The Giver lets Jonas experience the wonderful warmth of actual sunlight.  

It was not as exciting as the ride through the snowy air; but it was pleasurable and comforting.

Immediately after that lesson about sunshine being pleasurable, the Giver gives Jonas a lesson about painful sunshine. 

He opened his eyes, wincing with discomfort. "It hurt," he told the man, "and I couldn't get the word for it."

"It was sunburn," the old man told him.

So from one object, Jonas learned two lessons: one about pleasure and one about discomfort.

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The Giver used the sun to show pleasure and pain.  Remember, that the people of the society including Jonas up to this point did not know real pleasure or pain.  First, the Giver placed his hands on Jonas's back and transferred the memory of the warmth and pleasure derived from the sun.  Jonas then saw the sun as a source of pleasure. 

Jonas then told the Giver he was ready to experience pain.  Knowing that Jonas could handle very little, the Giver gave him the experience of a sunburn.  It did cause Jonas pain and the Giver was oddly quiet when Jonas said he now understood what pain was.  The Giver realized that Jonas only knew discomfort, not pain.  Stll, the Giver was able to use the sun to show the difference in pleasure and pain.

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What two lessons does Jonas learn about the sun?

The society in The Giver is characterized by Sameness. In chapter eleven, Jonas receives his first few memories from the Giver. He experiences weather for the first time. Jonas has lots of questions for the Giver, but at the same time parts of "the experience explained itself." After he gives Jonas the memory of riding a sled in the snow, the Giver tries out a different memory:

"Since we've entered into the topic of climate, let me give you something else. And this time I'm not going to tell you the name of it, because I want to test the receiving. You should be able to perceive the name without being told."

Jonas feels warmth:

"The warmth spread, extending across his shoulders, up his neck, onto the side of his face. He could feel it through his clothed parts, too: a pleasant, all-over sensation; and when he licked his lips this time, the air was hot and heavy . . .

. . . it was pleasurable and comforting. Suddenly he perceived the word for it: sunshine. He perceived that it came from the sky."

Jonas learns that the sun means warmth. Sunshine comes from the sky. His first feeling of sunshine is pleasurable.

Jonas is curious, and asks more questions. He wants to know about pain, so the Giver demonstrates this through a second memory of the sun.

"He felt the warmth again, the sunshine again, coming from the sky of this other consciousness that was so new to him. This time, as he lay basking in the wonderful warmth, he felt the passage of time. His real self was aware that it was only a minute or two; but his other, memory-receiving self felt hours pass in the sun. His skin began to sting. Restlessly he moved one arm, bending it, and felt a sharp pain in the crease of his inner arm at the elbow."

Through this memory, Jonas learns that spending too much time in the sunshine can lead to sunburn. He perceives the passing of time, and begins to feel stinging on his skin.

Jonas learns that sunshine can bring warmth, but it can also bring sunburn. One thing can bring both pleasure and pain. Sunshine radiates down from the sky; this is something we all know, but in Jonas's world it is something he learns through the memories. The sun is an example of how Jonas learns about the weather and sensations that are not felt under Sameness.

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What two lessons does Jonas learn about the sun?

The Giver uses the sun to transmit to Jonas the experiences of pleasure and pain.  In the Giver's society emotion is not known.  The population lives in a complete utopia of sorts where there is no pain, hate, bigotry, war, famine, etc.  There also isn't any love or joy.  Memories of those bad things have also been eradicated from the general population.  The memories cannot be completely removed though, which is why a "receiver of memory" exists.  Jonas is the new receiver.  

As part of his early training the Giver gives Jonas the memory and sensation of sunshine.  Jonas understands it and experiences it as pleasure. Jonas then asked the Giver about the pain he was to learn and experience.  The Giver decided to start with something mild, so he allowed Jonas to experience sunburn.  Jonas perceived that as pain, even though it was likely more akin to discomfort rather than actual pain. 

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