(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

The Gilded Age

Remembered as an era in American history characterized by great prosperity and industrial growth, the three decades following the Civil War have often been referred to as “The Gilded Age,” so called in part because of the 1873 novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner entitled The Gilded Age. The satirical novel, written in just a few months and intended as a caricature of the era, describes what the authors viewed as the greed and hypocrisy of American society and the folly of countless numbers of ordinary citizens who firmly believed that some magical scheme would lead them to riches. As articulated by Twain and Warner, the term “Gilded Age” refers primarily to the middle-class experience of the time, an experience typified by what author Thorstein Veblen called “conspicuous consumption”—of dress, home décor, and all material goods which were considered signs of “good taste.” Along with the increased aestheticism of the age, and perhaps in direct response to it, developed more self-conscious literary criticism and realism.

The Gilded Age was characterized most significantly by the rapid industrialization that transformed the country from a primarily rural and agriculturally-based republic whose citizens for the most part shared a belief in God, into an industrial and urbanized nation whose values were changing rapidly due, in part, to increased wealth and to the ramifications of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Oil magnate John D. Rockefeller and steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie—both of whom virtually monopolized their respective industries—symbolized both the “self-made man” and the spirit of acquisition that dominated the late nineteenth century. This “spirit” is what Twain and Warner criticized in The Gilded Age, drawing attention to the artificial standards of taste attributed to the growing American bourgeoisie. As individual income levels increased due to such factors as improved communications resulting from the introduction of the telephone, technological innovations such as electricity, and rapid transportation via the new transcontinental railroads, many individuals—the “new rich”—could afford to indulge in finer clothing (which had become cheaper and more accessible), home decorations (which were mass-produced), and leisure activities that would previously have been considered impractical. The steam engine, the railroads, and the industrial boom following the Civil War years produced the country's first moguls and monopolies and created a collective dream both at home and abroad of self-made fortunes and streets “lined with gold.”

But all that glittered was not gold. Economic change came unpredictably. In 1873-78, 1883-85, and again in 1893-97, the nation experienced serious economic depressions. African-Americans, betrayed by the false promises of Reconstruction, were subjugated in new and more subtle ways. Black Americans in the South were subject to Jim Crow laws (legal segregation sanctioned by the Supreme Court). These laws were often enforced with violent methods involving torture and lynchings. The North, too, was not entirely committed to racial equality: blacks there were typically relegated to subservient and subordinate roles. Critic James H. Dormon, studying the “coon song craze” of the late nineteenth century, has found that these immensely popular songs, which depicted stereotypical caricatures of black Americans, reflected the nationwide feeling that blacks should be held in subordinate and segregated positions in society. According to Dormon, these songs rationalized white America's perception of blacks not only as silly buffoons, but also as dangers to the existing social structure. Black Americans were not the only ones to suffer hardships during this period; many farmers lost their holdings as railroads and new machinery lowered their crop prices. Cities became crowded with immigrants eager to succeed but whose only real opportunity was to provide an endless supply of cheap labor. In short, the chasm between rich and poor seemed greater and more visible than ever.

The development of literature at the time reflects this division. Both “low-brow” and “high-brow” forms thrived, and so did artistic snobbery. For the first time in American history, art received critical attention for art's sake. Largely due to the support and example of William Dean Howells, one of the most influential writers of the late nineteenth century, authors like Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), Stephen Crane, and Henry James turned their attention to realistically depicting human behavior and social experience. Crane and Twain often went further in focusing on a new and more “realistic” subject matter—the experience of those who were not part of the middle class that so defined the standards of their age. The era also saw the emergence of regional literature, typified by the New England fiction of Sarah Orne Jewett and the vernacular dialect in Joel Chandler Harris's Uncle Remus stories and George Washington Cable's Creole tales. Several critics have suggested that this type of literature flourished during the latter part of the nineteenth century in part because these “local colorists” sought to preserve these distinctive modes of life before they were swallowed up by industrialization.

America experienced an industrial revolution later than England but more rapidly. The concentrated shift from homogenous, rural populations to diversified, urban ones created crowding and poverty, yet the industrial elites enjoyed a new wealth and urbane lifestyle that allowed for increased cultivation of the arts. Advances in machinery and transportation destroyed the old dream of agrarian self-sufficiency yet allowed for the mass production and accessibility of both necessities and luxuries. It was a time of great division, as well as a time of significant instability and anxiety, as many saw and lamented the replacement of religious and moral values with materialistic ones. Critic Paulette D. Kilmer, examining the “rags-to-riches” model in late nineteenth-century literature, has suggested that a great portion of Gilded Age literature is still closely tied to religious values. In these tales, as Kilmer has stated, a young protagonist often aids a wealthy benefactor, whose gratitude in turn enables the youngster to rise to the middle class. The tales offer evidence of benevolence—rather than a “quick fix”—as the source of a young man's success. Howells, though, beginning with the novel The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) and continuing with the novel A Hazard of New Fortunes (1890), addressed what he saw as the dangerous relationship between the economic growth of the United States and the corresponding decline of moral values under capitalism.

Modern critics have continued to debate this perception of the era. While many stress the negative influences of politics, industry, and technology on the society as a whole, others object to the emphasis on greed and corruption so often connected with the era, and instead focus on the dramatic and rapid transformation of the entire nation.

Representative Works

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

Horatio Alger, Jr.
Ragged Dick [Street Life in New York with the Boot Blacks] (novel) 1868

Edward Bellamy
Looking Backward: 2000-1887 (novel) 1888

George Washington Cable
The Grandissimes: A Story of Creole Life (novel) 1880

Abraham Cahan
Yekl, A Tale of the New York Ghetto (short story) 1896
The Imported Bridegroom and Other Stories of the New York Ghetto (short stories) 1898

Andrew Carnegie
The Gospel of Wealth (essay) 1889

Stephen Crane
Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (novel) 1893

Theodore Dreiser
Sister Carrie (novel) 1900

Paul Laurence Dunbar
Majors and Minors (poetry) 1895

Henry George
Progress and Poverty (nonfiction) 1879

Charlotte Perkins Gilman
The Yellow Wall-Paper (short story) 1892
Women and Economics (nonfiction) 1899

Joel Chandler Harris
Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings (short stories) 1881

William Dean Howells
The Rise of Silas Lapham (novel) 1885
A Hazard of New Fortunes (novel) 1890

Henry James
Daisy Miller: A Study (novella) 1879
The Portrait of a Lady (novel) 1881
The Bostonians: A Novel (novel) 1886
The Golden Bowl (novel) 1904

Sarah Orne Jewett
The Country of the Pointed Firs (novel) 1896

Mark Twain With Charles Dudley Warner
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (novel) 1873
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (novel) 1884
Pudd’nhead Wilson: A Tale (novel) 1894

Thorstein Veblen
The Theory of the Leisure Class (nonfiction) 1899

Charles Dudley Warner [with Mark Twain]
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (novel) 1873

John Tomsich (essay date 1971)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Exit Religion,” in A Genteel Endeavor: American Culture and Politics in the Gilded Age, Stanford University Press, 1971, pp. 167-85.

[In the following essay, Tomsich discusses the “genteel” authors of the Gilded Age, whose religious faith faded with the influence of evolutionary theory and gave way to a sometimes fatalistic moralism.]

For all their disillusionment with the real world, the genteel authors were never much interested in turning toward the supernatural for solace. They were sentimentally nostalgic about the religious certainty of past generations, but they cared only that much. Religion was always just an appurtenance of the comfortable...

(The entire section is 7425 words.)

Heinz Ickstadt (essay date 1983)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Concepts of Society and the Practice of Fiction—Symbolic Responses to the Experience of Change in Late Nineteenth Century America,” in Impressions of a Gilded Age: The American Fin de Siecle, edited by Marc Chenetier and Rob Kroes, Amerika Institut, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1983, pp. 77-95.

[In the following essay, Ickstadt argues that in response to the increasing fragmentation of American society in the Gilded Age, many authors attempted to create a sense of community through utopian symbolism.]

What has fascinated me for quite some time is the obvious affinity between the aesthetic, the moral, and the social imagination in late 19th century...

(The entire section is 7939 words.)

Paulette D. Kilmer (essay date 1996)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “News and Fiction: Prescriptions for Living,” in The Fear of Sinking: The American Success Formula in the Gilded Age, University of Tennessee Press, 1996, pp. 1-7.

[In the essay below, Kilmer discusses the popularity of the “rags-to-riches” success formula during the Gilded Age, suggesting that news items as well as bardic tales featuring these types of formulaic plots often served as reminders to readers that “honor, public esteem, and fidelity could not be bought.”]

Such opening phrases as “Once upon a time” or, in a newspaper, “The following story comes well authenticated from Trenton, Tennessee,” alerted nineteenth-century readers to...

(The entire section is 2946 words.)

Robert Falk (essay date 1970)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “The Writers' Search for Reality,” in The Gilded Age:Revised and Enlarged Edition, edited by H. Wayne Morgan, Syracuse University Press, 1970, pp. 223-37.

[In the following essay, Falk characterizes the Gilded Age as a time of great literary change, largely due to a break from Romanticism and a movement toward increased realism.]

The serious writers of any age are in search of reality, the real thing, the genuine article valid for their time. What make the difference between literary movements and periods are the special historical characteristics of the age and the particular literary form which embodies that reality and contemporaneity. In the Gilded Age...

(The entire section is 7054 words.)

Alan Trachtenberg (essay date 1982)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Fictions of the Real,” in The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age, Hill and Wang, 1982, pp. 182-207.

[In the essay below, Trachtenberg follows the development of Realism during the Gilded Age as a reaction against the sentimentalism of earlier romances and dime novels.]


“Realism,” complained Hamilton Wright Mabie, erstwhile critic for the Christian Union, seemed bent on “crowding the world of fiction with commonplace people, whom one could positively avoid coming into contact with in real life; people without native sweetness or strength, without acquired culture or accomplishments,...

(The entire section is 10557 words.)

Robert R. Roberts (essay date 1970)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Popular Culture and Public Taste” in The Gilded Age: Revised and Enlarged Edition, edited by H. Wayne Morgan, Syracuse University Press, 1970, pp. 275-88.

[In the following essay, Roberts reflects on the Gilded Age as an era of popular aesthetic interest, wherein high and low-brow culture interacted to create a distinctly American fiction, journalism, theatre, lyric, and decor.]

Popular culture in the hectic and colorful era that followed the Civil War encompassed diverse media. The daily newspaper, enriched with wire service news, the mass revival meeting, the Chautauqua lecture, and the traveling theater troupe all reflected American ideas and...

(The entire section is 6248 words.)

Reginald Twigg (essay date 1992)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Aestheticizing the Home: Textual Strategies of Taste, Self-Identity, and Bourgeois Hegemony in America's ‘Gilded Age,’” in Text and Performance Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1, January, 1992, pp. 1-20.

[In the following essay, Twigg argues that, in the Gilded Age, middle-class Americans sought to express their individuality, while conforming to the aesthetic ideal, through “tasteful” home decoration, which was documented in the various decorating texts popular among all levels of society.]

A vital function of texts, if viewed in relation to their performers, is to define, or more importantly, to perform the self. American “new historicists” such as...

(The entire section is 10184 words.)

James H. Dormon (essay date 1985)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Ethnic Stereotyping in American Popular Culture: The Depiction of American Ethnics in the Cartoon Periodicals of the Gilded Age,” in Amerikastudien/American Studies, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1985, pp. 489-507.

[In the excerpt below, Dormon surveys the use of ethnic stereotypes in American cartoon periodicals of the Gilded Age. He argues that they express increasing levels of fear and ethnocentrism in response to immigration.]

Images of ethnic minorities in the United States have long been subjects of the popular media and the performing arts, and have provided a rich store of American humor, primarily in the form of caricature presentation. Afro-Americans, for...

(The entire section is 4320 words.)

James H. Dormon (essay date 1988)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Shaping the Popular Image of Post-Reconstruction American Blacks: The ‘Coon Song’ Phenomenon of the Gilded Age,” in American Quarterly, Vol. 40, No 4, December, 1988, pp. 450-71.

[In the following essay, Dormon examines the popularity during the Gilded Age of ‘coon songs’ (songs about, and many times by, black Americans). Dormon suggests that the songs disseminated racist images and language in order to justify continued segregation and discrimination.]

On the occasion of the celebrated “Conference on the History of American Popular Entertainment” in 1977, the performer-scholar Max Morath noted, with reference to the “coon song craze” of...

(The entire section is 9992 words.)

Mary W. Blanchard (essay date 1996)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “The Soldier and the Aesthete: Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Gilded Age America,” in Journal of American Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, April, 1996, pp. 25-46.

[In the following excerpt, Blanchard argues that with the increased aestheticism of the Gilded Age came a more open acceptance of homosexuality and alternative definitions of manhood.]

The aftermath of civil strife, note some historians, can change perceptions of gender. Particularly for males, the effect of exhaustive internal wars and the ensuing collapse of the warrior ideal relegates the soldier/hero to a marginal iconological status. Linda L. Carroll has persuasively argued, for instance, that,...

(The entire section is 7645 words.)

Stacy A. Cordery (essay date 1996)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Women in Industrializing America,” in The Gilded Age: Essays on the Origins of Modern America, edited by Charles W. Calhoun, Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1996, pp. 111-35.

[In the excerpt below, Cordery enumerates the limitations placed on women by the domestic ideologies of the Gilded Age and shows how, in spite of these, many women were influential activists.]

Women were 48 percent of the population during the Gilded Age.1 Rather than attempting to describe the condition of women of every class, race, ethnicity, religion, and region (among the many categories possible), this essay focuses on how the origins of modern America affected women. As a...

(The entire section is 9186 words.)

Edmund J. Danziger, Jr. (essay date 1996)

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: “Native American Resistance and Accommodation During the Late Nineteenth Century,” in The Gilded Age: Essays on the Origins of Modern America, edited by Charles W. Calhoun, Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1996, pp. 163-84.

[In this excerpt, Danziger describes the struggles of Native Americans in the face of post-Civil War white migrations westward that forced Indian accommodation to reservation life.]

Long ago the Arapahoes had a fine country of their own. The white man came to see them, and the Indians gave him buffalo meat and a horse to ride on, and they told him the country was big enough for the white man and the Arapahoes, too.


(The entire section is 8224 words.)

Further Reading

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)


Carter, Paul A. The Spiritual Crisis of the Gilded Age. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1971, 295 p.

A historical and literary account of the increased skepticism and secularism of the Gilded Age.

Daufenbach, Claus. “‘Corruptionville’: Washington, D. C., and the Portrait of an Era in Mark Twain's The Gilded Age.” In Washington, D. C.: Interdisciplinary Approaches, edited by Lothar Hönnighausen and Andreas Falke, pp. 151-66. Tübingen: Francke Verlag, 1993.

A defense of the historical merit ofThe Gilded Age for representing the artifice and greed of the times.


(The entire section is 271 words.)