Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Helene Alving, the widow of Captain and Chamberlain Alving, lives on a country estate in Western Norway. A sum of money, inherited from her late husband, has enabled her to construct an orphanage in his memory. the memorial is undeserved, however, for Captain Alving was a carnal lecher and a drunkard who transmitted his own syphillis to his newborn son, Oswald. Captain Alving also fathered a daughter, Regine, by the family maid.

Alving’s behavior, when discovered by his wife, led her to want to seek a divorce. Dissuaded by the family’s spiritual adviser, Pastor Manders, she consented to remain in her degrading marriage out of a sense of Christian duty, imposed on her by the Pastor.

The play begins on the eve of the dedication of the orphanage. Mrs. Alving, Pastor Manders, and Oswald are all present in the house. So is Regine, who is employed as the family’s maid. Mrs. Alving first reveals the shocking truth of Regine’s parentage to the Pastor; she then explains that she has begun to question her received faith and has become a reader of “freethinking” literature.

While the two are debating this issue, they overhear a flirtatious scene between Oswald and Regine. Oswald, who suffers from severe headaches, believes that his condition would be improved if Regine were his wife. At the end of the play, the orphanage burns and Oswald’s inherited syphilis turns to insanity. First, however, he has given his mother some morphine tablets with which she has promised to take his life when his disease reaches its final stage. She must now decide whether to fulfill her promise.


Clurman, Harold. Ibsen. New York: Collier Books, 1977. This introductory study provides the general reader with a good starting place for reading about Ibsen. Clurman, a renowned stage director, discusses the plays as theater as well as literature. His discussion of Ghosts clarifies a misunderstanding about the play’s title and explores at some length the motivations of the characters.

Fjelde, Rolf, ed. Ibsen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965. Sixteen essays that cover Ibsen’s conception of truth, realism, and stage craftsmanship, among other topics. Francis Fergusson discusses the realism, suspense, and tragic nature of Ghosts.

Lyons, Charles R., comp. Critical Essays on Henrik Ibsen. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987. A thorough and useful volume of essays that includes discussions that address topics like realism and dramatic form in Ibsen’s works. The remarks on Ghosts explore the use of asides, disease, and dramatic language.

McFarlane, James, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ibsen. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Sixteen newly written essays on Ibsen’s life and work provide a good resource. Chapters 9-13 discuss Ibsen’s working methods and the stage history of the plays up through the age of film and television.

Valency, Maurice. The Flower and the Castle: An Introduction to Modern Drama. New York: Schocken Books, 1982. Readers interested in Ibsen as the founder of twentieth century drama will find rewarding material in this study, the first in Valency’s modern drama series. The author devotes more than 100 pages to Ibsen, and his comments on Ghosts are a good introduction to the play.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access

Critical Evaluation


Critical Overview