Storytellers from Switzerland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia
The foremost Swiss prose writer after Conrad Ferdinand Meyer was Carl Spitteler, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1919. A Symbolistic critic of the materialism and utilitarianism of his age, he expressed many psychological insights in his fiction. The story Conrad der Leutnant (1898) deals with a young man and his overbearing family. The title of Imago (1906), the story of a sexual obsession sublimated in devotion to art and a love attachment emerging from repression, supplied Freud and his circle with the name of both a significant psychoanalytic concept and a journal. Die Mädchenfeinde (1907; The Little Misogynists, 1923) is a sensitive and colorful tale about boys and girls on the verge of adolescence. The three novels of Robert Walser, who lived in psychiatric clinics for the last twenty-seven years of his life, are partly autobiographical. The subtly ironic Walser foreshadows Franz Kafka (who appreciated him) in that familiar details of everyday life are used as the stepping-stones to fantasy. In Jakob von Gunten (1909; English translation, 1969), the author exposes the moral ambivalence of his age through the diary entries and musings of a boy at a boarding school, a sort of urban “magic mountain,” who manages to take an imaginary trip that removes him from European culture. In Konrad Pilater (1910), by Jakob Schaffner, a young man is torn between political radicalism and love. Jakob Christoph Heer and Ernst Zahn dealt with aspects of Swiss cantonal life in their novels Der König der Bernina (1900) and Albin Indergang (1901), and the priest Heinrich Federer wrote Lachweiler Geschichten (1911), Swiss village tales in the tradition of Jeremias Gotthelf and Keller.
The Vienna of the end of the nineteenth century has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In the last decades of the old, moribund Habsburg Empire there was a greater consciousness of decline and dissolution in Austria than in Germany, and this sense of life found expression in impressionistic and Symbolistic terms. Naturalism never took hold in Austria, where industrialization was a much slower process, for writers there did not share the political activism of their German colleagues. Most of the Jung Wien, or Young Vienna, writers (Hermann Bahr, Arthur Schnitzler, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Felix Salten, Richard Beer-Hofmann, Peter Altenberg, Stefan Zweig, and Leopold, Freiherr von Andrian-Werburg) were of an upper-middle-class background and thus tended to be conservators rather than reformers.
The great theme of the older generation of writers was the impact of modernization and early capitalism on the landed gentry and the upwardly mobile bourgeoisie. The melancholy Ferdinand von Saar strove to depict society in the manner of Turgenev; his stance of scientific detachment and sympathy for those defeated by change links him to the naturalists. Saar is particularly remembered for his cycle Novellen aus sterreich (1877-1897; a literary picturebook of Francisco-Josephinian Austria) and the novel Schloss Kosternitz (1892). The dramatist Ludwig Anzengruber wrote the powerful novel Der Sternsteinhof (1885). The fiction of Peter Rosegger, including the novel Jakob der Letzte (1888), is rooted in his native Styria.
The senior member of Young Vienna, the dramatist and critic Bahr, has been called a “virtuoso of receptivity.” His considerable amount of fiction includes his first novel, Die gute Schule (1890), subtitled Seelenstände (psychic states), which tells the story of a young painter whose overcoming of a creative crisis in Paris makes him conclude that love is “the good school of true wisdom,” and Theater (1897), a roman à clef set in...
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