George Sand Additional Biography


(Critical Guide to Censorship and Literature)

0111204723-Sand.jpg George Sand (Library of Congress) Published by Salem Press, Inc.

A leader in the Romantic movement in literature, a feminist libertine, and a socialist champion of the working class, George Sand advocated freedom of the press throughout her career. Her novels and political writings outraged bourgeois sensibilities and challenged the conventions that the middle class held absolute.

Born to an aristocratic father and a woman of humbler social origin, Sand was raised by her paternal grandmother, then sent to a convent in Paris. At eighteen she married Baron Dudevant but, finding conjugal life oppressive, left him in 1831 for a young writer, Jules Sandeau, whose surname she adapted for her pen name. Sand’s subsequent extramarital liaisons, most notably with Alfred de Musset and Frédéric Chopin, but also with persons of her own sex, scandalized Paris. Her lifestyle was bohemian, she wore men’s clothing, smoked cigars, and used her masculine pen name in public.

In 1848 Sand was unofficial minister of propaganda for the republican revolutionaries in Paris. However, she disassociated herself from radical feminist attempts to have her elected to the National Assembly because she deemed political equality for women premature. In the government suppression of radical elements that followed the unsuccessful republican coup, she was accused of conspiracy, but was not arrested. Her popularity suffered, however, and she gave up political writing.

Sand’s early novels, including Indiana...

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(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

George Sand was born Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin in Paris on July 1, 1804, to parents who had been married scarcely a month. Her father, Maurice Dupin, was a descendant through bastard lines of the king of Poland, Augustus the Strong, and her mother, Sophie Delaborde, was a camp follower and the daughter of a Paris bird seller. Thus, from the beginning, Sand was exposed to the class struggle. When she was four years old, her father was killed in a fall from a horse; three years later, her mother gave up custody of her to her aristocratic maternal grandmother, who brought her up as a lady at her country estate of Nohant in the Berry region. Sand nevertheless reached out to her mother in Paris and the working class she represented.

In 1817, Sand returned to Paris, where she entered the Couvent des Anglaises for her education. In 1820, she returned to the country while her grandmother attempted to arrange a suitable marriage for her; Sand preferred to read books and ride horses. After the death of her grandmother in 1821, Sand returned to Paris to live with her mother. This arrangement proved unsatisfactory because of her mother’s violent temper, and the girl sought refuge at the country estate of her father’s friends, the Roëttiers. Through the Roëttiers, she met Casimir François Dudevant, the illegitimate but recognized son of a baron; she married Dudevant in 1822.

At first, the couple seemed happy enough, but after the birth of their son Maurice in 1823, their incompatibility became evident. A second child, Solange, was born in 1828. After a fight with her husband, Sand arranged to spend half of each year in Paris, where Dudevant would send her an allowance from the revenues of her land. In 1831, she left for Paris to live with Jules Sandeau, a law student who aspired to become a writer. To supplement her meager pension, Sand obtained a job writing for Le Figaro, a newspaper run by Hyacinthe de Latouche, an acquaintance from Berry. In collaboration with Sandeau, Sand wrote several short stories and at least one novel, which was signed “J. Sand.” When Sand wrote Indiana alone at Nohant and returned to Paris to publish it, de Latouche suggested that she keep the name “Sand” and choose another Christian name. She chose“Georges” (soon anglicized to George) because it seemed to her to be typical of the Berry...

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(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

George Sand (sahnd), as she chose to be known from 1832 onward, was born Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin on July 1, 1804, in Paris, France. Through her father, Maurice Dupin, Aurore was descended from an aristocratic line that included King Frederic-Augustus II of Poland. Her father gave up early musical aspirations for a career as a military officer. Through her mother, Sophie Delabord, Aurore was descended from the opposite end of the social scale. Sophie lived by her wits and had entered marriage to Maurice Dupin with a daughter (Caroline) from a previous relationship. Aurore’s imperious, aristocratic grandmother, Marie-Aurore Dupin, had little tolerance for Sophie or Caroline. When Aurore was four years old, Maurice Dupin was...

(The entire section is 1005 words.)


(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

George Sand was part of the Romantic movement and followed the idealistic eighteenth century philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who believed in humanity’s innate morality and goodness that was without the need for social convention or organized religion. The effect of Sand’s putting Rousseau’s moral theories into living practice, while simultaneously popularizing them in her novels, must not be underestimated. The personal freedom enjoyed by women of the Western world is in part a monument to her success.


(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

In Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dudevant, née Dupin, known to posterity as George Sand (sahnd), were united two quite dissimilar lines of heredity. On the mother’s side her origins were obscure; Sophie Delaborde, a humble Parisian modiste, was a bird-trainer’s daughter. On the father’s side her pedigree was brilliant; Maurice Dupin was a dashing officer only a few generations removed from royalty, being the son of M. Dupin de Francueil (who had numbered among his friends Jean-Jacques Rousseau) and of Marie Aurore, a granddaughter of Augustus the Strong of Saxony. Maurice Dupin and his wife Sophie were married in the late spring of 1804, and their child Aurore was born in Paris on July 1. In 1808 Dupin was killed in a fall from...

(The entire section is 648 words.)