Garrett Kaoru Hongo Biography


(Poets and Poetry in America)

A fourth-generation Japanese American, Garrett Kaoru Hongo was born in Volcano, Hawaii, in 1951. His parents are Albert Kazuyoshi Hongo, who died in 1984, and Louise Tomiko Kubota Hongo. Until he was six years old, he and his family lived in Kahuku and then Hauula on the island of Oahu. Hongo learned at this time to speak Pidgin English and Japanese. From the ages of six to eighteen, Hongo lived with his family in and around Los Angeles, where he began to experience the harshness of city life (in contrast to the easy rhythms of life on the island) and the prejudices and injustices of a multicultural society. He attended an inner-city high school, which was an integration pilot combining whites, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans in the same classes. Some of his poems, “Morro Rock” in particular, evoke conflicts experienced for the first time in his teenage years.

Hongo’s beginnings as a poet came when he was eighteen and started writing love poems to a European American girl, celebrating a relationship that they felt pressured to keep secret. She awakened in him an intellectual camaraderie with “books about adolescent yearning and rebellion, about ’the system’ not understanding you,” notably William Golding’s Lord of the Flies (1954), J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (1951), Hermann Hesse’s Siddhartha (1951), J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings (3 volumes, 1954-1955), and Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1962). His first serious poetry came when he was twenty and a student at Pomona College in Claremont, California. There, as a freshman, he read the early fiction of James Joyce, who made him aware of links between language and culture and the literary divisions of loyalty that an artist might feel. As a sophomore, he progressed to the poetry of Ezra Pound and William Butler Yeats, whom he began to revere as sages who had reinvented English according to their own inner voices. He immersed himself in listening to the language of poets by attending actual readings by Philip Levine (who was to become a mentor), Gary Snyder, Seamus Heaney, and Galway Kinnell. He studied Japanese and Chinese formally, and, as Hongo himself relates, “practiced calligraphy every night, and, afterwards, my mind tight and cluttered with bristling ideograms, read the great translations of Tang Dynasty Chinese poetry by Pound, Arthur Waley, Witter Bynner, and Kenneth Rexroth.” Through this process, he began to have confidence in his own authentic voice, what he calls his “inner speech,” later encouraged by poet-teachers Bert Meyers, Charles Wright, C. K. Williams, and Philip Levine.

At the age of twenty, Hongo returned to Hawaii and began to try to reclaim that portion of his own past, his heritage. Here he discovered in a garage his father’s library, consisting primarily of works of realistic fiction, and he established a connection with his uncle, Robert Hongo, who was a novelist. The first “real” poem Hongo wrote was called “Issei: First-Generation Japanese American.” The poem relates an ancestral explanation of how he received his own middle name and thus reveals the close link between name and identity, between name and heritage. Writing the poem was a turning point for him, a moment that confirmed his calling. Hongo describes this experience in terms that represent the...

(The entire section is 1391 words.)

Garrett Kaoru Hongo Biography

(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Garrett Hongo was born in the shadow of the Kilauea volcano but reared near Los Angeles. When he comes to terms with his origins during his first sojourn to Hawaii at middle age, he liberates his spirit with a moving insight that solidifies his sense of self. His poetry and prose are reverent, precise, and evocative, celebrating male ancestors, early Japanese poets, family, birthplace, and home.

Estranged from his past, his Japanese family hiding the bitter truths of the World War II internment from him, Hongo has continually lived a racially mixed life. Gardena, California, the town where he grew up, boasting the largest community of Japanese Americans on the mainland United States at the time, was bordered on the north by the black towns of Watts and Compton and on the southwest by Torrance and Redondo Beach, white towns. Hongo was sensitized to issues of uneasy race relations and urban street life.

Hongo studied in Japan for a year following graduation from Pomona College, then earned a master’s degree in fine arts from the University of California at Irvine. As a poet in residence in Seattle, he founded and directed a local theater group called The Asian Exclusion Act. Hongo identifies largely with the West Coast, a mecca for many Asian American writers, and early became a friend and collaborator with Lawson Fusao Inada, a pioneer Japanese American poet. His marriage to white violinist Cynthia Thiessen and their rearing of two sons, Alexander and Hudson, have given Hongo particular sensitivity to the cultural terrain he calls “the borderlands.”

The only Asian member of the faculty at the University of Oregon, Eugene, Hongo has directed the creative writing program there since 1989 and has received several extended leaves that allowed time in Hawaii to work on his prose memoirs, published in 1995 as Volcano. Among the most important influences he identifies is Wakako Yamauchi, a widely anthologized Japanese American short-story and play writer, whose works Hongo collected and edited under the title Songs My Mother Taught Me, which was published in 1994.

Garrett Kaoru Hongo Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Garrett Kaoru Hongo was born on May 30, 1951, in Volcano, Hawaii, of Japanese parents. His father, Albert Kazuyoshi, was descended from a line of clerks and administrators, and his mother, Louise Tomiko Kubota Hongo, came from a family of plantation laborers. The family left Volcano when Hongo was six months old. Eventually they moved from Hawaii, and when he was six years old they settled in a small city south of Los Angeles called Gardena. At that time, Gardena boasted the largest community of Japanese Americans on the United States mainland. It was bordered on the north by the African American neighborhoods of Watts and Compton and on the southwest by Torrance and Redondo Beach, white towns. Growing up in a working-class neighborhood with a variety of ethnic groups early sensitized Hongo to issues of race relations, cultural alienation, and urban street life, which influenced the writing of such poems as “96 Tears.”

Hongo graduated from Pomona College with honors in 1973, studied in Japan for a year under a fellowship, attended graduate school at the University of Michigan in 1974 to 1975, and earned an M.F.A. from the University of California, Irvine, in 1980, where he also completed everything but his dissertation for a doctorate in critical theory. While he was at Michigan, winning the Hopwood Poetry Prize changed the direction of his studies, and soon after that he worked as poet-in-residence in Seattle, founding and directing a local theater group called “The Asian Exclusion Act.” There he staged plays such as Frank Chin’s The Year of the Dragon (pr. 1974) and his own Nisei Bar and Grill, among others, and his creative imagination took fire. He became acquainted with Lawson Fusao Inada, a pioneer Japanese American poet, with whom he and Alan Chong Lau collaborated on The Buddha Bandits down Highway 99. In his work and his sensibility, Hongo identifies largely with...

(The entire section is 786 words.)