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Last Updated on February 4, 2016, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 966


Aguirre, Ángel Manuel. “Juan Ramón Jiménez and the French Symbolist Poets: Influences and Similarities.” Revista Hispánica Moderna: Columbia University Hispanic Studies 36, no. 4 (1970-71): 212-23.

Considers the stylistic and theoretical influence of works by Rimbaud, Mallarmé, and Verlaine on the writings of Andalusian poet Juan Ramón Jiménez.


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Aguirre, Ángel Manuel. “Juan Ramón Jiménez and the French Symbolist Poets: Influences and Similarities.” Revista Hispánica Moderna: Columbia University Hispanic Studies 36, no. 4 (1970-71): 212-23.

Considers the stylistic and theoretical influence of works by Rimbaud, Mallarmé, and Verlaine on the writings of Andalusian poet Juan Ramón Jiménez.

Aguirre, J. M. “Francis Vielé-Griffin, ‘La Partenza’: A Symbolist Poem.” Studi Francesi 24, no. 1 (January-April 1980): 102-13.

Provisionally identifies the main features of Symbolist verse, then applies these concepts to an interpretation of Vielé-Griffin's 1899 poem “La Partenza.”

Balakian, Anna, ed. The Symbolist Movement in the Literature of European Languages, Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1982, 732 p.

A collection of essays on Symbolism largely devoted to the influence of the movement on twentieth-century literature, art, and music.

———. The Fiction of the Poet: From Mallarmé to the Post-Symbolist Mode, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1992, 201 p.

Studies developments in Symbolist poetic and narrative theory after Mallarmé, focusing on writers such as Valéry, Rilke, Yeats, and Stevens as post-Symbolists.

Bertocci, Angelo Philip. “Baudelaire, Les Symbolistes, and Modern Theories.” In From Symbolism to Baudelaire, pp. 169-203. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.

Evaluates the work of Baudelaire, viewing it as the most significant antecedent of the Symbolist movement.

Chiari, Joseph. Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarmé: The Growth of a Myth, Folcroft, Penn.: The Folcroft Press, Inc., 1956, 198 p.

Assesses the stimulus of writings by Edgar Allan Poe on French Symbolism.

Deak, Frantisek. Symbolist Theater: The Formation of an Avant-Garde, Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, 300 p.

In-depth examination of conceptual affinities between Symbolist poetic theory and the intellectual framework of avant-garde theater in the twentieth century.

de Man, Paul. “The Double Aspect of Symbolism.” Yale French Studies, no. 74 (1988): 3-16.

Explores the theoretical duality inherent in French Symbolism as embodied in Mallarmé's focus on disconnection and Baudelaire's elusive drive toward poetic unity.

Goodkin, Richard E. “Zeno's Paradox: Mallarmé, Valéry, and the Symbolist ‘Movement’.” Yale French Studies, no. 74 (1988): 133-56.

Applies an antique paradox of motion and stasis to the quasi-metaphysical question of Symbolism's existence as a historically quantifiable movement, using Mallarmé poem “L'Après-midi d'un faune” and Valéry's “Le Cimetière marin” as poetic exemplifications of thematic immediacy and immobilization.

Jones, P. Mansell. The Background of Modern French Poetry: Essays and Interviews, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951, 195 p.

Describes the literary influences that gave rise to the Symbolist movement and traces the development of free verse in France.

Kearns, James. Symbolist Landscapes: The Place of Painting in the Poetry and Criticism of Mallarmé and his Circle, London: The Modern Humanities Research Association, 1989, 218 p.

Details the relationship between French Symbolist poetry and the painting of Gauguin, Manet, Seurat, and others.

Kelley, David. “Degas: Naturalist Novelist or Symbolist Poet?” French Studies 38 (1984): 306-18.

Asserts the ambivalent position of Degas's painting between Naturalist and Symbolist aesthetics.

Kovach, Thomas A. “A New Kind of Poetry: Hofmannsthal and the French Symbolists.” Comparative Literature 37, no. 1 (winter 1985): 50-66.

Presents evidence of Symbolist elements (inspired by the French lyrical tradition of externality) in the German poetry of Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

Lawler, James R. The Language of French Symbolism, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1969, 270 p.

Features essays on Mallarmé, Verlaine, Rimbaud, Valéry, Claudel, and Apollinaire.

Lehmann, A. G. “The Symbol in Art.” In The Symbolist Aesthetic in France 1885-1895, pp. 248-318. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1950.

Critiques Baudelaire's poetic theory of universal “correspondences,” the center of his aesthetic doctrine.

Lydon, Mary. “Skirting the Issue: Mallarmé, Proust, and Symbolism.” Yale French Studies, no. 74 (1988): 157-81.

Stresses the inherent enigmas of Symbolist poetry by concentrating on the writings of Mallarmé mediated through the literary perception of Marcel Proust.

McGuinness, Patrick. “From Page to Stage and Back: Mallarmé and Symbolist Theatre.” Romance Studies, no. 26 (autumn 1995): 23-40.

Traces the application of Symbolist poetic theory by Baudelaire and Mallarmé to the semiotics of theater, particularly as it is understood via the poststructuralist critical perspective of Roland Barthes.

Newmark, Kevin. Beyond Symbolism: Textual History and the Future of Reading, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991, 233 p.

Discussion of modern French literature informed by the “radical indeterminacy” of Symbolism as a literary movement.

Ratner, Marc L. “‘Anywhere Out of This World’: Baudelaire and Nathanael West.” American Literature 31, no. 4 (January 1960): 456-63.

Highlights the influence of the French Symbolist mode, and that of Baudelaire's poem “Anywhere Out of This World” in particular, on Nathanael West's novel Miss Lonelyhearts and other writings.

Robinson, Michael. “Finding a New Language: Strindberg and Symbolism.” Scandinavica: An International Journal of Scandinavian Studies 33, no. 2 (November 1994): 201-15.

Examines the tangential influence of Mallarmé and Baudelaire on the symbolic vocabulary of Strindberg.

Smith, Richard Cándida. Mallarmé's Children: Symbolism and the Renewal of Experience, Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1999, 304 p.

Elucidates links between Symbolist aesthetics and avant-garde reconceptualizations of society through art in the twentieth century.

Symons, Arthur. The Symbolist Movement in Literature, New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1958, 164 p.

A key critical study of Symbolism that introduced the movement to the English-speaking world by seeking to define its salient qualities and articulate the aims and techniques of its literary adherents in France.

Taupin, René. The Influence of French Symbolism on Modern American Poetry, translated by William Pratt and Anne Rich Pratt, New York: AMS Press, 1985, 300 p.

Probes the French origins of American Imagist and Modernist verse.

Temple, Ruth Zabriskie. The Critic's Alchemy: A Study of the Introduction of French Symbolism into England, New York: Twayne Publishers, 1953, 345 p.

Focuses on five English authors who served as transmitters of developments in late nineteenth-century French literature: Matthew Arnold, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Arthur Symons, Edmund Gosse, and George Moore.

Yoon, Ho-Byeong. “Encounters Between French Symbolist Poetry and Modern Korean Poetry.” Korea Journal 27, no. 10 (October 1987): 11-27, 52.

Argues that contact between French Symbolist and Korean poetry forced the latter away from the traditional restrictions of literary didacticism by about 1910.

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