Frederick Douglass remains an icon in American history. His three published autobiographies span the years 1818 to 1891(four years prior to his death). Thus, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave; My Bondage and My Freedom; and Life and Times of Frederick Douglass are a rare legacy. Douglass’s autobiographies are also valuable as landmark publications in African American prose literature. Douglass and his fellow slave autobiographers influenced the early African American novelists such as William Wells Brown, a slave autobiographer and author of Clotel (1853); Frank J. Webb, author of The Garies and Their Friends (1857); and Frances E. W. Harper, author of Iola Leroy (1892). Douglass and his contemporaries have also influenced the works of twentieth and twenty-first century novelists such as Arna Bontemps, Octavia E. Butler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Margaret Walker Alexander, Ernest J. Gaines, Alex Haley, Charles Johnson, Edward P. Jones, Toni Morrison, Lalita Tademy, and Sherley Anne Williams, all of whom evoke images of slavery in their writing. Douglass’s additional contributions include speeches such as his 1852 oration, What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July? and his periodicals, North Star, which was renamed Frederick Douglass’ Papers, and Douglass’ Monthly. Thus, Douglass remains an important historical and literary figure for future generations.