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In addition to frequent sybolism, as stated in the previous response, Shelley makes particular use of narration to divulge elements of the plot. Whenever Victor is particularly positive about a friend or family member, disaster is just around the corner. In Chapter 18, for instance when Clerval joins Victor, Victor describes him as "alive to every new scene, joyful when he saw the beauties of the setting sun, and more happy when he beheld it rise and recommence a new day." No one this happy lives long in this novel. Another good example is Elizabeth's letter in Chapter six  regarding "little darling William" and his adorable "little dimples." I her very next letter, just a few pages later we learn that "William is dead!"

Shelley reminds us that Victor is narrating his story to Walden aboard the ship. Often, Victor uses apostrophe ("Oh, Henry!") and lets us know how terrible he feels about some later tragedy in the story. Victor has a wonderful memory and is precise about his account of events. It seems that he cannot help but give us some spoilers along the way, though.

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Throughout Shelley's gothic novel, Frankenstein, there is much foreboding that is suggested by

THE WEATHER

  • In the frame story, the events of the novel are foreshadowed by Walton's presumption that he can successfully venture into the icy wilderness
  • It is the great forces of nature that drive Victor into his scientific pursuit. (The Romantic view holds that when one tampers with the forces of nature, retribution by nature will follow.)
  • On the night of his creation, it is dark and dreary; later comes a "tempest." This suggests ominous happenings.
  • When Victor returns home after the death of William, Victor fears what will come,

"Night closed all around, and when I could hardly see the dark mountains, I felt still more gloomily.  The picture appeared a vast scene of evil, and I foresaw obscurely that I was destined to become the most wretched of human beings" (72).

  • Victor's pursuit of the creature through the dangerous and icy regions of the mountains presage his death.

THE WORDS AND ACTIONS OF CHARACTERS

  • Victor states, "It was the secrets of heaven and earth that I desired to learn" (28).  His hubris will be his nemesis.
  • Victor's rejection of his creature, and running from it when it opens its eyes and smiles at Victor.  Rejected and alone, the creature will seek revenge.
  • Victor's refusal to confess that he knows who has killed William and the others presages more murders.
  • Victor's refusal to create a partner for the creature. The monster will retaliate as promised.
  • The creature is feared, rejected, and abused when he reveals himself to the occupants of the cottage, whom he has helped. He will reject humanity for its cruelty to him.
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How are foreshadowing and foreboding used in the novel Frankenstein?

I'd like to add some additional sources to clarify the queer theory angle that I referred to in my previous response, and so I've added some links to articles by specific scholars who have written about homosexual desire and queer tropes in Frankenstein.

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How are foreshadowing and foreboding used in the novel Frankenstein?

One of the most dramatic examples of foreboding and foreshadowing in the novel occurs when the monster tells Victor "I will be with you on your wedding night." This happens at a point where the monster has grown bitter and hateful, cursing his ugly appearance which belies his strong intellect and depth of emotional sensitivity. He is angry at Victor for having created him, and Victor feels too much sympathy for the monster to destroy him. He tries to create a female companion for the monster, but this ends in disaster.

This line has been said by numerous scholars to contain hints of underlying themes of latent homosexuality, in that the monster is a shadow image of Victor, created by him but given an ugly appearance, that contains truths he would rather not face. One idea that has been explored is that the creation of life from death suggests an end of human sexual reproduction, or, put another way, a possible world where men can exist without women. The line also suggests the monster is a constant source of worry and dread for Victor, and the idea that the monster will be with him on his wedding night hints  that Victor's marriage to Elizabeth may be haunted by Victor's conflicted sexuality.

The line "I will be with you on your wedding night," repeated ominously by the monster, also suggests that Elizabeth is a barrier to their own sexual union. Victor does not know that the monster is planning to murder Elizabeth in their marriage bed--this is perhaps the most potent example of foreshadowing in the entire story. (Interestingly, the stage play production by Danny Boyle adapted from this novel portrays this scene in brutal terms: the monster first rapes Elizabeth before he strangles her.) 

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How are foreshadowing and foreboding used in the novel Frankenstein?

Notice that the subtitle of the novel is The Modern Prometheus, a phrase that describes the titular character: Frankenstein.  Prometheus was punished terribly by Zeus for helping humankind by giving us light from the sun in order to cook our food and warm ourselves; his brother, Epimetheus had made the animals first and given away the sharp teeth, the claws, and the warm fur.  Therefore, Prometheus basically saves us with this gift.  However, the subtitle alone foreshadows some awful punishment that will be inflicted on Victor for his attempt to help humanity as well.  This foreshadowing is strengthened by the creature's later association with lightning (consider the lightning that first illuminates him to Victor's sight in Geneva), because lightning is the weapon of Zeus, the very god who punishes Prometheus.  This forebodes a difficult life for Victor as the enemy of a creature who is more powerful than he.

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