What areas of life does the creature in Frankenstein gain insight about?

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In Shelley's Frankenstein, the monster does learn some history and philosophy, etc., but the dominant aspects of life that he learns about are probably loneliness, despair, prejudice, and revenge. 

He learns that human beings judge others by appearances:  he is rejected by every human he meets--even a little boy, who he thinks won't yet have developed prejudices, rejects him on the basis of his appearance.

This leads to his loneliness and despair.  He is truly one of a kind, and this makes him truly alone.  Left alone, this "natural man" becomes hateful and monstrous.  His only hope is to have a mate--like Adam had Eve--but Victor, the human who rejects him because of his appearance, denies him this as well.

By the conclusion of the story, revenge is all that the monster has.  Not only his own, but Victor's.  By the conclusion of the novel, his reason for existence is to toy with Victor and prevent Victor from getting his revenge on him. 

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