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Although dismissed as morbid by many of his contemporaries, Baudelaire was actually lancing the boils of neurotic repression. He confronted images of gross flesh, the intoxications of strange touch and smell, forbidden sensual desires and fantasies; he celebrated exotic but voraciously consuming women, cats and tigresses who clawed their way to his heart. By flaunting such forbidden flights of fancy in an age of bourgeois respectability and hypocritical religiosity, Baudelaire was updating the liberating imperative of Romanticism.

He adopted the macabre from Edgar Allan Poe--a writer he introduced to his native France and whose influence on French literature has been immense--sexualized it, and then grafted it to the hauteur and defiance of Byronic independence.

Baudelaire was not merely glorifying art in the manner of the aestheticists who followed him later in the 19th century. His unique manipulations of Romantic ideas and attitudes broke important ground in the historical development of literary modernism. It is Baudelaire who must receive credit for much of what we have come to take for granted in modern poetry: stark and bold images sharply contrasted, richly textured lines that reward close reading with symbolic discovery, and a sense of form and control that seems to validate the modern artist’s right to deal with matters usually considered too unconventional for public discourse.

The impact of Baudelaire’s art has been immense; his influence on modern American poetry has been greater than that of any poet of his time.


Benjamin, Walter. Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism. Translated by Harry Zohn. London: New Left Books, 1973. Looks at literature in its social context and finds Baudelaire to be emblematic of his times. Discusses Baudelaire as a chronicler of Parisian city life, and a critic of industrialization and the advent of materialist culture.

Houston, John Porter. French Symbolism and the Modernist Movement: A Study of Poetic Structures. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980. Presents Flowers of Evil as the foundation of French Symbolism and European Modernism. Focuses on the self-reflexive quality of Baudelaire’s poetry and his demoniac persona.

Hyslop, Lois Boe. Charles Baudelaire Revisited. New York: Twayne, 1992. Excellent overview of the poet’s life and works. The chapter devoted to Flowers of Evil examines the poems in their respective groupings, followed by a consideration of overarching themes. Suggests its continuity with Baudelaire’s other works.

Leakey, F. W. Baudelaire: “Les Fleurs du mal.” Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Extensive evaluation of each edition of Flowers of Evil. Analyzes the differences between the different editions; elaborates on the coherence of each section and the collection as a whole. Discusses the main themes and stylistic features of the verse.

Peyre, Henri, ed. Baudelaire: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1962. Eleven important articles written by eminent Baudelaire scholars. Spans a wide range of topics, including an exploration of imagery, the poet’s persona, public reaction, and Baudelaire’s influence on contemporaries.

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Critical Essays