Places Discussed


Train. Railroad train traveling from Mexico City to Irapuato whose hospital car is the principal setting for the first half of the novel. The Reyes Téllez family, fleeing with their portable belongings, is first to find this relatively empty space on a crowded train. Soon others join them, revealing a cross-section of humanity under stress as the train chugs forward through the night. Because there are no sick or wounded in the car the doctor in charge cannot turn the able-bodied away. The Reyes Téllez women set up a makeshift cooking area and offer him eggs and toast, ensuring his goodwill. People sprawl out on the floor or discuss rumors, which are as plentiful as the sparks flying off the train’s wheels.

The furnishings within the hospital car are rudimentary but not primitive, reflecting both the era and place and the middle-class status of the riders. Riding atop the roof and in the dangerous spaces between train cars are other people, presumably poorer and more desperate, of whom readers catch brief glimpses. The division is more significant than it first appears. People inside the hospital car are trying to hang on to what they have, be it General Malacara’s big gray motorcar or Matilde Reyes Téllez’s caged canary. The peasants and migrant workers, lacking land, have nothing to hang on to. The author, as a supporter of Pancho Villa, is sympathetic toward the latter, but his focus during the train journey and in the novel is on how the minor functionaries are not certain where their own best interests lie.

The train’s jerky motions and belches of smoke form a metaphor for the Mexican Revolution, whose turmoil lasted many years, with noise and action obscuring the hoped-for...

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Clive, Griffin. “The Structure of Los de abajo.” Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos 6, no. 1 (Fall, 1981): 25-41. Azuela’s best-known novel is analyzed within the context of the literary movement of the Mexican Revolution. Emphasizes Azuela’s literary craft as a departure from older patterns.

Dean, James Seay. “Extreme Unction for Past Power and Glory: Four Fictions on the Mexican Revolution.” Revista de Estudios Hispánicos 17, no. 1 (January, 1983): 89-106. A comparative study of Azuela’s novels and of novels by Malcolm Lowry, Luis Martín Guzmán, and Graham Greene, all of whose works are deeply influenced by historical events surrounding the Mexican Revolution.

Herbst, Gerhard R. Mexican Society as Seen by Mariano Azuela. New York: Abra Ediciones, 1977. Azuela’s novels of the Mexican Revolution are studied for historical, eyewitness accuracy. Focuses on Azuela’s use of realist techniques in his descriptions of key historical incidents of the revolution.

Leal, Luis. Mariano Azuela. New York: Twayne, 1971. An excellent starting point to Azuela’s life and works. Offers an analysis of his works and a strong biographical and historical background.

Martínez, Eliud. The Art of Mariano Azuela: Modernism in “La malhora,” “El desquite,” “La luciérnaga.” Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1980. Azuela is considered a precursor of Latin American modernism, one of the first literary movements of the twentieth century. Modernist analysis of three representative novels focuses on Azuela’s interest in the Mexican Revolution.