James Baldwin’s The Fire Next Time, according to writer William Styron, is “one of the great documents of the twentieth century.” It articulates the anger, frustration, and hope felt by African Americans during the 1960’s. The two essays composing this work were published in 1963, selling more than one million copies, making Baldwin—according to The New York Times—the widest read African American writer of his time. The book is Baldwin’s response to the social and racial injustice he witnessed in America. Having lived in Europe for almost twenty years, Baldwin felt compelled to return to America to participate in the Civil Rights movement. He offered The Fire Next Time as “a kind of plea” because “we, the black and the white, deeply need each other here if we are really to become a nation.”

The first short essay, “My Dungeon Shook: Letter to My Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Emancipation,” is Baldwin’s diagnosis of America’s racism as well as his prescription for his young nephew’s survival in such a diseased society. As a man who has seen America at its worst, Baldwin warns his nephew of the dangers threatening a young black man. He also offers him a challenge: to be a catalyst of change. Baldwin contends that the fates of black and white Americans are inextricably intertwined, that for America to fulfill its promise, both must acknowledge the need for the other. White America holds fast to ideals that are not actually practiced. This failure to practice its ideals is proven in its steadfast denial of the value of black lives. Baldwin tells his nephew that American society has narrowly circumscribed his world so that his dreams will never move beyond the street corner of the Harlem ghetto.

Baldwin offers hope to all African Americans, but it comes with great responsibility. He maintains that because white America insists on its innocence, on the ideal image it has created of itself, it cannot initiate change. Baldwin observes that “these innocent people have no other hope. They are, in effect, still trapped in a history which they do not understand; and until they understand it, they cannot be released from it.” African Americans must force white America to examine itself. African Americans, Baldwin predicts, “can make America what America must become.” Neither white America nor black America, however, can find freedom or justice apart from each other. Their fates are necessarily and inextricably connected.

The second, much longer and more substantial essay, “Down at the Cross: Letter from a Region in My Mind,” can be divided into three sections. The first discusses Baldwin’s growing up in the Harlem ghetto and the influences that led to his involvement in the church. The second is a reflection on the black nationalism (advocated by the Black Muslims) occasioned by Baldwin’s meeting with Elijah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam. The third part proposes as much of a solution to the racial conflict existing in America as Baldwin can offer.

Baldwin tells the story of his childhood in his autobiographical novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), and in his famous essay, “Notes of a Native Son” (1955). The additional account in The Fire Next Time proves an argumentative point—that the racism experienced daily by African Americans is overwhelming and devastating. Baldwin describes the overwhelming fear that permeated his life from his earliest memory, a fear affecting every aspect of his life. He reports that every black child is raised not only to fear his parents’ punishment, but also white people’s judging his every word and action. He sees the terror in his parents’ eyes lest he should say or do something in the presence of white people that could lead to his demise. Baldwin’s own dreams of finishing high school and becoming a writer drew down the wrath of his father. Better to beat such dangerous aspirations from the child early than to have him beaten or killed in the hostile white world.

In the ghetto, a child had to have a gimmick, Baldwin claims, a method that would save him from the constant humiliation that was his life. The street’s alcohol, drugs, and sex offered one kind of escape—a carnal seduction. The church held out to him a “spiritual seduction.” The woman minister who led him to his salvation asked fourteen-year-old Baldwin, “Whose little boy...

(The entire section is 1816 words.)