Joseph Butler was the most influential Anglican theologian of the eighteenth century. During his own time and for some time thereafter, his fame as a religious philosopher rested primarily on his very influential book The Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature (1736), in which he argued for an enlightened theology designed to woo the Deists back into the fold of the church. However, his enduring philosophical reputation rests on his Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel and A Dissertation Upon the Nature of Virtue (appended to his 1736 work), in which he expounds his views about human nature and morality. Indeed, his refutation of psychological egoism, the doctrine that people are always motivated by their own self-interest, is a classic. Butler’s refutation and the analysis of human nature on which it is based are also dealt with in the preface to the Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel, in Sermons 1, 2, 3, 11, and 12, and in the dissertation.