Feminism in Literature Women in the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries - Essay

Introduction

(Feminism in Literature)

Women in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries were challenged with expressing themselves in a patriarchal system that generally refused to grant merit to women's views. Cultural and political events during these centuries increased attention to women's issues such as education reform, and by the end of the eighteenth century, women were increasingly able to speak out against injustices. Though modern feminism was nonexistent, many women expressed themselves and exposed the conditions that they faced, albeit often indirectly, using a variety of subversive and creative methods.

The social structure of sixteenth century Europe allowed women limited opportunities for involvement; they served largely as managers of their households. Women were expected to focus on practical domestic pursuits and activities that encouraged the betterment of their families, and more particularly, their husbands. In most cases education for women was not advocated—it was thought to be detrimental to the traditional female virtues of innocence and morality. Women who spoke out against the patriarchal system of gender roles, or any injustice, ran the risk of being exiled from their communities, or worse; vocal unmarried women in particular were the targets of witch-hunts. Anne Hutchinson, who challenged the authority of Puritan clergy, was excommunicated for her outspoken views and controversial actions. Anne Askew, a well-educated, out-spoken English Protestant, was tried for heresy in 1545; her denial of transubstantiation was grounds for her imprisonment. She was eventually burned at the stake for her refusal to incriminate other Protestant court ladies. Elizabeth I ascended to the throne in 1558, a woman who contradicted many of the gender roles of the age. She was well educated, having studied a variety of subjects including mathematics, foreign language, politics, and history. Elizabeth was an outspoken but widely respected leader, known for her oratory skills as well as her patronage of the arts. Despite the advent of the age of print, the literacy rate during this period remained low, though the Bible became more readily available to the lower classes. Religious study, though restricted to "personal introspection," was considered an acceptable pursuit for women, and provided them with another context within which they could communicate their individual ideas and sentiments. In addition to religious material, women of this period often expressed themselves through the ostensibly private forms of letters and autobiographies.

The seventeenth century was not an era of drastic changes in the status or conditions of women. Women continued to play a significant, though not acknowledged, role in economic and political structures through their primarily domestic activities. They often acted as counselors in the home, "tempering" their husbands' words and actions. Though not directly involved in politics, women's roles within the family and local community allowed them to influence the political system. Women were discouraged from directly expressing political views counter to their husbands' or to broadly condemn established systems; nevertheless, many women were able to make public their private views through the veil of personal, religious writings. Again, women who challenged societal norms and prejudices risked their lives—Mary Dyer was hanged for repeatedly challenging the Massachusetts law that banished Quakers from the colony. Though their influence was often denigrated, women participated in various community activities. For example, women were full members of English guilds; guild records include references to "brethern and sistern" and "freemen and freewomen." During the seventeenth century, women's writings continued to focus on largely religious concerns, but increasingly, women found a creative and intellectual outlet in private journal- and letter-writing. Mary Rowlandson's captivity narrative, published in 1682, is a famous narrative written ostensibly for personal use that was made public and became a popular success.

The eighteenth century brought the beginning of the British cultural revolution. With the increasing power of the middle class and an expansion in consumerism, women's roles began to evolve. The economic changes brought by the new middle class provided women with the opportunity to be more directly involved in commerce. Lower-to middle-class women often assisted their husbands in work outside the home. It was still thought unseemly for a lady to be knowledgeable of business so, though some class distinctions were blurring, the upper class was able to distinguish themselves from the rest of society. The rise in consumerism allowed the gentry to place a greater emphasis on changing fashion and "display," further distancing them from the middleclass. With the advent of changes in rules of fashion and acceptable mores within society, some women established a literary niche writing etiquette guides. Also due to the cultural revolution, mounting literacy rates among the lower classes caused an increase in publishing, including the rise of the periodical. Men and women of all classes found new means to express ideas in the wider publishing community. Though women's writing during this period continued largely to be an extension of domesticity, and focused mainly on pragmatic, practical issues, women found a wider market for publication. The act of professional writing, however, was still considered "vulgar" among the aristocracy. Significant colonial expansion during this period provided would-be writers with unique subject matter—letters written by women abroad discussed foreign issues and culture, and offered a detailed view of far-off lands. These letters were often circulated among members of an extended family, as well as in the larger community. In defiance of social strictures, women such as Mary Wollstonecraft began to speak out publicly on women's rights, including education and marriage laws. Though women had better access to education, the goal of women's education was to attain an ideal "womanhood"—a "proper education" was viewed as one that supported domestic and social activities but disregarded more academic pursuits. Women such as Wollstonecraft advocated access to education for women that was equal to that of their male counterparts. Marriage laws, which overwhelmingly favored men, also spurred public debate, though little was accomplished to reform laws during this period.

Throughout the world, women took action to advance their political and social rights. Catherine the Great of Russia devised a coup d'etat to take the throne in 1762, an aggressive act to prevent her son's disinheritance. Catherine continued to rule in an unconventional, independent manner, withdrawing from the men who made her ascension possible and remaining unmarried to ensure her power. Catherine was a shrewd politician, and used wide public support to enact laws that significantly altered the Russian political system. In France, Olympe de Gouges demanded equal rights for women in the new French Republic, and was eventually executed by guillotine in 1793. Madame Roland, who also met an untimely death in 1793, influenced revolutionary politicians and thinkers during the French Revolution through her famous salon. She, too, was an activist for women's social and political rights and was executed for treason, largely due to her outspoken feminist ideas. Phillis Wheatley, an African-American slave, examined slavery and British imperialism in her poetry, and became a notable figure among abolitionists in America and abroad. Increasingly, women rebuked traditional roles and spoke out against the social and political inequalities they faced. The century closed with the deaths of visionaries such as Mary Wollstonecraft and Catherine the Great, and the births of a new breed of female writers and scholars. The political and social changes that took place in the eighteenth century paved the way for these future writers and activists to advance the cause of women's rights.

Representative Works

(Feminism in Literature)

Marie Jean Antoine

On the Admission of Women to the Rights of Citizenship (essay) 1790

...

(The entire section is 706 words.)

Anne Wheathill (Essay Date 1584)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Wheathill, Anne. "A Handfull of Holesome (though Homelie) Hearbs. "In Lay by Your Needles...

(The entire section is 3130 words.)

George Savile, Marquis Of Halifax (Essay Date 1688)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Halifax, George Savile, Marquis of. "Advice to a Daughter." In, The Lady's New Years Gift, or,...

(The entire section is 1614 words.)

Daniel Defoe (Essay Date 1719)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Defoe, Daniel. "(On) The Education of Women." In English Essays from Sir Philip Sidney to...

(The entire section is 1805 words.)

Overviews

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Spender, Dale. “Introduction: A Vindication of the Writing Woman.” In Living by the Pen: Early British Women Writers, edited by Dale Spender, pp. 1-35. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992.

In the following excerpt, Spender surveys outstanding eighteenth-century women writers and discusses their motivations, situations, and accomplishments.

While many changes took place in the eighteenth century, two are of primary concern here; they are:

the emergence of the novel, and
the establishment of the professional woman writer.

But these two major...

(The entire section is 16344 words.)

Gary Kelly (Essay Date 1996)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Kelly, Gary. “Gender, Class and Cultural Revolution.” In Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft, pp. 1-22. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

In the following essay, Kelly discusses the influence of women on the British middle-class cultural revolution of the 1790s.

Mary Wollstonecraft was a Revolutionary feminist—an advocate of the rights or claims of women in a specific revolutionary situation. There were two related aspects of that situation: the French Revolution and the cultural revolution that founded the modern state in Britain.1 Many cultural revolutionaries in...

(The entire section is 9919 words.)

Dawn Keetley And John Pettegrew (Essay Date 1997)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Keetley, Dawn and John Pettegrew. "Introduction: Part I: Identities through Adversity." In Public...

(The entire section is 2697 words.)

Jane Donawerth (Essay Date 2000)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Donawerth, Jane. “Women’s” Poetry and the Tudor-Stuart System of Gift Exchange.” In Women, Writing, and the Reproduction of Culture in Tudor and Stuart Britain, edited by Mary E. Burke, Jane Donawerth, Linda L. Dove, and Karen Nelson, pp. 3-18. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

In the following essay, Donawerth details how women of Tudor and Stuart times circulated their writings through gift exchanges.

If women were constrained by early modern English culture to be “chaste, silent, and obedient,” and if “silent” extended to writing, how did so many women come to circulate their writings in manuscript or...

(The entire section is 8853 words.)

Eve Rachele Sanders And Margaret W. Ferguson (Essay Date January 2002)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Sanders, Eve Rachele and Margaret W. Ferguson. "Literacies in Early Modern England." Critical...

(The entire section is 3353 words.)

Hilda L. Smith (Essay Date 1998)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Smith, Hilda L. “Introduction: Women, Intellect, and Politics: Their Intersection in Seventeenth-Century England.” In Women Writers and the Early Modern British Political Tradition, edited by Hilda L. Smith, pp. 1-14. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

In the following essay, Smith notes difficulties in trying to determine seventeenth-century women’s understanding of politics and their roles in the political arena.

Relating women’s intellectual history to British political thought in the early modern era leaves one in a perpetual state of schizophrenia. With rare exceptions, scholars working in these distinct...

(The entire section is 6506 words.)

Isabel De Madariaga (Essay Date November 2001)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: de Madariaga, Isabel. "Catherine the Great: A Personal View." History Today 51, no. 11...

(The entire section is 4519 words.)

Dympna C. Callaghan (Essay Date 1994)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Callaghan, Dympna C. “The Ideology of Romantic Love.” In The Weyward Sisters: Shakespeare and Feminist Politics, edited by Dympna C. Callaghan, Lorraine Helms, and Jyotsna Singh, pp. 59-101. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1994.

In the following excerpt, Callaghan examines Romeo and Juliet to determine its influence on societyńs notions of desire.

“To this end . . . is this tragicall matter written, to describe unto thee a couple of unfortunate lovers, thralling themselves to unhonest desire, neglecting the authority and advice of parents and friends . . .”(Evans, 1057). Thus Arthur Brooke defines the...

(The entire section is 7704 words.)

Leah Marcus (Essay Date October 2000)

(Feminism in Literature)

SOURCE: Marcus, Leah. "Elizabeth the Writer." History Today 50, no. 10 (October 2000): 36-38....

(The entire section is 2650 words.)

Further Reading

(Feminism in Literature)

Alexander, Meena. "Introduction: Mapping a Female Romanticism." In Women in Romanticism: Mary Wollstonecraft, Dorothy...

(The entire section is 800 words.)