Themes and Meanings
Dickinson often objectifies death through a narrator who recalls her own death. This occurs, for example, in poems 449, 465, and 712. Along with God, nature, and love, death is a favorite theme. At times Dickinson’s position toward death seems contradictory. On one hand, she seems nearly to celebrate it as an anodyne to life, as in “Because I could not stop for Death,” where death appears in the guise of a suitor and the grave is a “House” in the ground. On the other hand, death is that stain upon the cosmos, an act of a “burglar” deity. In one of her letters, she exclaimed, “I can’t stay any longer in a world of death.”
The poem is notable for its lack of a consolatory element, a departure from the custom of the time. Indeed, it offers no message of any kind, either about how to live or how to prepare for Eternity. The emphasis is upon death, its stark reality as a divorcer from the senses and as life’s ultimate ritual. A person has no source of promptings for its content. Clearly the poem is not Christian in its depiction of death as ultimate extinction rather than as passage into glory.
It is possible that the poem deals with a psychical death—that is, with the desperate attempt of the mind to ward off pain through repression, or the forgoing of consciousness. In this vein, the analogy of burial is an appropriate one. Elsewhere (poem 777), Dickinson writes of “The Horror not to be surveyed—/ But skirted in the Dark—/ With Consciousness suspended—/ And Being under Lock.” In poem 341, Dickinson writes that “After great pain, a formal feeling comes—/ The Nerves sit ceremonious, like Tombs.” In the same poem, she writes, “This is the hour of Lead,” which may be compared with the “boots of lead” in the present poem.
It is also conceivable that the poem depicts the mind’s downward journey into madness or psychological dislocation. In this connection, poem 435 speaks of “Madness” as the “divinest Sense” and of “Much Sense—the starkest Madness.” Indeed, some critics have argued for a psychotic disturbance in Emily Dickinson or for some kind of severe loss in her life that created a devastating emotional aftermath.