Doctor Faustus Themes
The main themes in Doctor Faustus are the folly of ambition, true versus illusive power, and good versus evil.
- The folly of ambition: Faustus's initially grand aims quickly give way to pranks and entertainments, showing the folly of his desire to reach for power beyond human limitations.
- True versus illusive power: Faustus's power is not truly his own but rather that of Mephistophilis, who is subservient to Lucifer, who is in turn constrained by God.
- Good versus evil: Faustus at first chooses the side of evil in his attainment of ungodly magic, but he later decides to repent, only to be easily swayed towards evil again.
The Folly of Ambition
From the very outset, Faustus is unsatisfied with traditional areas of study, believing that he is destined for far greater accomplishments than the mastery of normal subjects can prepare him for. It is for this reason that he is attracted to the magical arts, which he knows can grant him powers far beyond those of even kings. But as Faustus’s true motivations become clearer, it is evident that he desires powers far beyond the limits of human life. As the action of the play builds, Faustus’s ambition clashes rather pointedly against his actual behavior, and this leads him to failure.
By setting Faustus’s goals as high as he does (diverting the Rhine, redefining the political borders of Europe, commanding the secret knowledge of the cosmos, etc.), Marlowe effectively predetermines the trajectory of Faustus’s arc. With such lofty ambitions, there is only one way for Faustus to go: downward. This also relegates Faustus’s highest ambitions to the purely theoretical realm. These ambitions prompt Faustus to go through with his deal with Lucifer. From the moment his wielding of infernal power becomes real and not theoretical, his actions seem mediocre.
It is a very human failing to be paralyzed in the face of an utterly inexhaustible set of options. In this way the true potential of Mephistophilis’s power, in the hands of Faustus, is never even remotely realized. Instead, Faustus exhausts his more impressive feats off-stage and in the space of a few lines of exposition and then sets his sights almost humorously low.
It is not hard to imagine Faustus experiencing a certain amount of fraudulence in the performance of his feats. This may be one reason for his altercation with the Knight. His reputation, his abilities, and his actions, are almost completely accomplished at the hand of Mephistophilis. Indeed, by seeking powers beyond that which humans can attain, Faustus gets precisely what he asks for: powers he cannot actually claim as his own. This is part of the lesson of his tragedy. Like Icarus, Faustus reaches for powers beyond his grasp and ultimately falls. Faced with the certainty of torment and death, Faustus finds himself precisely where he began but with his ambitions now reversed. Having gained little for the sale of his soul, he is ironically willing to give it all up again, merely for a chance at a bit more life.
True Versus Illusive Power
Although Faustus does influence most of the action in the play through his desires and choices, almost none of his actual deeds are performed by him. From the first, Faustus’s summoning of Mephistophilis is undercut as an achievement when Mephistophilis admits that he only appeared because he had a good chance of collecting Faustus’s soul. From this point on, Faustus wields virtually no power of his own.
It is not only Faustus, however, who has the mere illusion of power. Mephistophilis himself admits that he can do nothing without the consent of Lucifer. His power, like Faustus’s, really stems from another source. Furthermore, the limits of Mephistophilis’s abilites are shown early on when he proves incapable of fulfilling certain basic requests of Faustus’s, such as for a wife or for information about who created the universe. Furthermore, the summoning of heroic and mythological characters as specters suggests...
(The entire section is 1,189 words.)