Fashion in Nineteenth-Century Literature
The following entry discusses the representation of fashion in nineteenth-century art and literature.
The study of the depiction of fashion in literature has proven to be a valuable tool in deducing and evaluating societal constructions of gender and class. Critical discussion of fashion in nineteenth-century life and art derives from two principal sources: primary documents such as etiquette manuals and trendy periodicals, and its representation in notable works of literature and the visual arts. The close examination of this material reveals fashion to be a signifier of wealth and status, as well as a method of exposing cultural restraints and demands on women.
The use of clothing to denote social class is not unique to Victorian society, but the prescribed rules of dress dictated by manuals of etiquette and social decorum, as described by Philip Perrot, created an attention to dress that rivals any other period. Perrot details the challenges that women endured in keeping up with the latest trends. Mandates in style were ever changing, so that only the wealthiest women could dress fashionably. Valerie Steele contends that as the middle-class grew and increasingly emulated the manners and dress of the aristocracy, the evolution of style increased to where only those belonging to the uppermost circle of wealth could keep up with the latest fashion, thus reinforcing class lines.
The very fabric of Victorian-era dress worked to strengthen these social lines. Working men and women, no matter how careful, would invariably have clothing faded by the effects of time and labor. In this era an emphasis was placed on any clothing that reinforced the perception of “idleness,” a quality that only the very wealthy could afford. Both Perrot and Steele detail the importance put on impractical fabrics and shoes, sleeves that made it impossible to raise one's arms, and full crinolines that made it cumbersome for a woman to maneuver beyond her own drawing room.
Rules of morality necessitated certain articles, such as gloves, to be worn at all times. Perrot discusses how touching a woman's bare hand was considered too risque for public behavior. Likewise, revealing a laced up boot or uncovered ankle was a provocative maneuver that could be considered scandalous. Men were not immune to restrictions. Both Perrot and Steele describe the expectation that men also adhere to the latest fashion in hat size and shape, cravat size and shape, and changes in coat length and style, so that a gentleman was easily distinguished from a merchant or other working-class male.
Secondary sources, such as literary texts, also delineate the social and cultural implications of clothing, specifically in relation to the development of a consumer society and the...
(The entire section is 673 words.)