Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close Analysis

  • Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close is narrated from the point of view of Oskar, a precocious nine-year-old boy who struggles to cope with the tragic loss of his father. The first-person perspective gives readers a window into the aftermath of the September 11th attacks and what it was like to live in New York City at that time.
  • Oskar's first-person narration is occasionally interrupted by letters written by his grandmother and grandfather. These letters, addressed either to Oskar or his father, tell the story of how Oskar's grandmother and grandfather were separated during World War II. Years later, the couple reconnects, but it's unclear if they are able to repair the damage that was done.
  • Much of the novel focuses on Oskar's quest to discover the meaning of the black key. He first finds the key in a vase that belonged to his father. He then goes around the city, searching for the lock his key will open. Along the way, the key becomes a symbol not just of mystery but of Oskar's attempts to cope with tragedy. The quest is ultimately a distraction from the pain of his father's death. 



The novel takes place mostly in New York City, shortly after terrorists destroy the Twin Towers in 2001. However, the time switches from the narrator's present to the late 1940s when his grandparents are newlyweds and even farther back to when they are teenagers in Germany.

In the present time, Oskar lives in an apartment building. Across the street, in another building, is his grandmother. The two of them sometimes communicate with one another through signs in their windows and walkie-talkies.

Oskar roams all over the city, especially in his search for the owner of the key he has discovered in his father's closet. He is only nine years old, but he travels in taxis, knocks on strangers' doors, and visits every borough in New York. Oskar is afraid of riding on the subway because the subway is considered a viable target for another terrorist attack. Oskar is afraid of suffering the same fate as his father.

The other location frequented, through the stories of Oskar's grandparents, is Dresden, Germany. Both grandparents lived in Germany as children. When they were teens, Dresden was severely bombed by the Allied Forces during World War II. Both grandparents lost their entire families. Oskar's grandfather was severely burned. He also lost his pregnant girlfriend, Anna, Oskar's grandmother's older sister. His trauma was intensified when he was forced to kill escaped zoo animals. This lifelong regret explains why he keeps so many animals in his apartment. His other traumas make his refusal to talk about his emotions understandable. He is afraid to love because he is afraid of getting hurt.Save Changes

Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close

(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 5)

The publication of Everything Is Illuminated in 2002 marked one of the most dazzling American literary debuts in recent decades. The novel, an international best-seller, recounts a young man’s search in Ukraine for the woman who saved his grandfather’s life during the Holocaust. The young man happens to share the name of the book’s remarkable author, Jonathan Safran Foer. A cultural celebrity at only twenty-five, Foer sold his second novel, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, to film producer Scott Rudin even before it appeared in print. It was published a few months before the release, in August, 2005, of the film version of Everything Is Illuminated, starring Elijah Wood as Foer.

Though Foer’s early success created exalted expectations, few readers were disappointed by Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close. Whereas the plot of his first novel is generated by the worst atrocity of the twentieth century, the extermination of most of Europe’s Jews, the brilliant new novel responds to an early twenty-first century atrocity, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001.

Most of Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close is narrated by Oskar Schell. Schell’s voice, while evoking some comparisons with that of J. D. Salinger’s Holden Caulfield and Günther Grass’s Oskar Matzerath, is not quite like any other in modern fiction. A nine-year-old with an erudite vocabulary and a penchant for bilingual puns, Oskar summarizes his attributes in the calling card he dispenses to new acquaintances:inventor, jewelry designer, jewelry fabricator, amateur entomologist, francophile, vegan, orgamist, pacifist, percussionist, amateur astronomer, computer consultant, amateur archeologist, collector of: rare coins, butterflies that died natural deaths, miniature cacti, Beatles memorabilia, semiprecious stones, and other things.

Oskar’s favorite book, A Brief History of Time (1988), daunts most adults, and he writes fan letters to its author, the physicist Stephen Hawking. Alienated from children his own age, who do not share his interests and talents, Oskar was unusually closeindeed, incredibly closeto his father, a jeweler by trade but by inclination a scholar whose daily diversion was ferreting out mistakes in The New York Times.

Thomas Schell happens to be in the World Trade Center on the morning that the terrorists strike. Dismissed from school because of the emergency, Oskar arrives home in time to hear the six final messages that his father, trapped in the collapsing skyscraper, left on the family answering machine. Burdened by overwhelming grief, what he calls “heavy boots,” Oskar attempts throughout the novel to reconcile himself to the sudden, violent death of the man whom he adored.

Father and son bonded not only over bedtime stories but over “Reconnaissance Expeditions”elaborate, esoteric scavenger hunts that Thomas devised for Oskar. After September 11, Oskar embarks on the supreme Reconnaissance Expedition, an arduous quest that will enable him to understand and accept the loss of his father. Rummaging through Thomas’s effects, Oskar discovers an envelope inside a vase. The envelope contains a key, and the boy is convinced that, if only he can find the lock the key fits, the mystery of why his father was in the World Trade Center at the moment of its destruction will be solved. Oskar calculates that there are about 162 million locks in New York City. A single word, “Black,” is written on the envelope, and he concludes that someone by that name will recognize the key and unlock the puzzle of his father’s death. Wearing the exclusively white clothing that is his trademark fetish, Oskar sets abouton foot, because he has become terrified of public transportationto track down all 472 people named Black living in the five boroughs of New York.

One of the first Blacks Oskar interviews, a 103-year-old retired war correspondent named A. R. Black, happens to be living one floor above the Schell apartment on the Upper West Side of...

(The entire section is 1677 words.)


Anonymous. 2005. "Review of Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close." Publishers Weekly, Vol. 252, No. 5, p. 46. The reviewer offers a positive critique of the novel.

Charles, Ron. 2005. "Boy, Interrupted." Washington Post, March 27, p. T.03.
Charles found that the narrator in Foer's novel saves the book.

Eder, Richard. 2005. "Keys to the Grieving Heart." Los Angeles Times, April 3, p. R.7. Eder finds both good and mediocre elements of Foer's novel.

Glazebrook, Olivia. 2005. "Wearing Heavy Boots Lightly." Spectator, Vol. 298, No. 9227, p. 40. This reviewer offers high praise for Foer's novel.

Green, John. 2005. "Review of Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close." Booklist, Vol. 101, No. 11, p. 917. Green writes a brief but positive review.

Kim, Walter. 2005. "Everything Is Included." New York Times Book Review, April 3, pp. 1–3. Kim explores the form of Foer's first novel.

Miller, Laura. 2005. "The Terror of Tiny Town." New York, Vol. 38, No. 11, pp. 70–71. Miller finds flaws in Foer's novel.

Moffett, Matthew L. 2005. "Review of Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close." School Library Journal, Vol. 51, No. 7, p. 131. Moffett offers another positive review of the novel.

Oppenheimer, Mark. 2005. "A Young Novelist Takes on 9/11." Forward, Vol. CVII, No. 31, p. 12. Oppenheimer points out one of the biggest criticisms of Foer's writing—all his tricks.

Ulin, David L. 2005. "Thinking of Writing As a Saving Grace." Los Angeles Times, May 16, p. E.1. Ulin interviews Foer about his writing.


(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 5)

Artforum, April/May, 2005, p. 43.

Atlanta Journal and Constitution, April 3, 2005, p. L8.

The Boston Globe, April 3, 2005, p. D6.

Chicago Tribune, March 20, 2005, p. 1.

Commentary 119, no. 5 (May, 2005): 80-85.

Los Angeles Times, April 3, 2005, p. R7.

The Nation 280, no. 16 (April 25, 2005): 29-32.

The New York Times Book Review 154 (April 3, 2005): 1-12.

The New Yorker 81, no. 4 (March 14, 2005): 138-140.

Time 165, no. 11 (March 14, 2005): 59-62.

USA Today, March 31, 2005, p. D5.

The Washington Post, March 27, 2005, p. T03.