Exile in Literature Criticism: Exile In Fiction - Essay

Leo Gurko (essay date 1962)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Gurko, Leo. “The Reluctant Underground.” In Joseph Conrad: Giant in Exile, pp. 7-20. New York: Macmillan 1962.

[In the following excerpt, Gurko explores some of Joseph Conrad's writings in the context of his exile from Poland.]

The tragedy of Poland was not only geographic, but psychological. It was bad enough that fate had ringed her with powerful enemies. Worse still was that the same fate did not equip her to discharge effectively the role demanded by a malevolent geography.

For nearly two centuries Poland has been forced, against her own nature and traditions, into a conspiratorial underground, a role she has played with notable...

(The entire section is 5235 words.)

Andrew Gurr (essay date 1981)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Gurr, Andrew. “A Foot in Both Jungles: Katherine Mansfield.” In Writers in Exile: The Identity of Home in Modern Literature, pp. 33-64. Sussex, England: Harvester Press, 1981.

[In the following excerpt, Gurr comments on Katherine Mansfield's attitude toward her being, in effect, an exile in England from her native New Zealand.]


The exiled artist is like the rag which is tied in the middle of the rope used in a tug of war. He marks the still point between two straining forces. From one direction he is pulled by the sense of his own individuality which helped to make him an artist, the distinctive voice ready to...

(The entire section is 5142 words.)

Asher Z. Milbauer (essay date 1985)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Milbauer, Asher Z. “I. B. Singer: The Convergence of Art and Faith.” In Transcending Exile: Conrad, Nabokov, I. B. Singer, pp. 73-120. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1985.

[In the excerpt below, Milbauer focuses on Isaac Bashevis Singer's novel Shosha as a vehicle for the writer's commenting both on his own destiny as an exile and on the collective destiny of the Jewish people.]

Binele, I won't abandon you. I swear by the soul of your mother.

I. B. Singer, “The Lecture”

I will make it so you will live forever.


(The entire section is 5840 words.)

Bettina L. Knapp (essay date 1991)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Knapp, Bettina L. “Huysmans's Against the Grain: The Willed Exile of the Introverted Decadent.” In Exile and the Writer: Exoteric and Esoteric Experiences—A Jungian Approach, pp. 75-92. University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

[In the following excerpt, Knapp discusses Joris-Karl Huysmans' controversial novel Against the Grain, suggesting that des Esseintes's self-imposed exile attests to his being deprived of love in childhood, resulting in his present inability to love.]

Willed exile and the deepest condition of introversion was the way chosen by Duke Jean des Esseintes in Joris-Karl Huysmans's1 extraordinary...

(The entire section is 7928 words.)

J. Gerald Kennedy (essay date 1993)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Kennedy, J. Gerald. “Modernism as Exile: Fitzgerald, Barnes, and the Unreal City.” In Imagining Paris: Exile, Writing, and American Identity, pp. 185-242. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

[In the following excerpt, Kennedy discusses F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night in light of some American writers' attempts to go into voluntary exile in Paris in order to refresh their cultural perceptions.]

Gertrude Stein remarked that modernist writers and artists of her time had converged on the capital of France because “Paris was where the twentieth century was.” The city not only incorporated within its diverse cultural life the most...

(The entire section is 23817 words.)

Samuel Lyndon Gladden (essay date 2000)

(Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism)

SOURCE: Gladden, Samuel Lyndon. “‘Sebastian Melmoth’: Wilde's Parisian Exile as the Spectacle of Sexual, Textual Revolution.” Victorians Institute Journal 28 (2000): 39-63.

[In the following essay, Gladden analyzes Oscar Wilde's journal, written under the pseudonym Sebastian Melmoth, in terms of his thoughts about being exiled from England after serving his prison term.]

Many men on their release carry their prison about with them into the air, and hide it as a secret disgrace in their hearts, and at length, like poor poisoned things, creep into some hole and die. It is wretched that they should have to do so, and it is wrong, terribly wrong,...

(The entire section is 10113 words.)