Ernest Hemingway Additional Biography

Biography

(Critical Guide to Censorship and Literature)

Hemingway started his writing career as a newspaper reporter, then volunteered to drive ambulances for Italy during the early part of World War I. Afterward, he returned to journalism, joining the ranks of newspaper correspondents in Europe by writing for the Toronto Star. While he was living in Paris, his life was altered when he joined a group of artists and intellectuals known as the lost generation.

With Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein encouraging him to write, Hemingway published his first collection of stories, In Our Time, in 1924. In 1926 his novel about the postwar generation, The Sun Also Rises, put his literary reputation on an upward climb. In 1930, however, this book was banned in Boston, Massachusetts; in 1953 it was prohibited in Ireland; and in 1960 the San Jose, California, school system banned the book, and all of Hemingway’s books were removed from Riverside, California, school libraries.

Hemingway’s “code heroes” and snappy dialogue brought to life the drama of an Italian retreat during World War I in A Farewell to Arms (1929). The book drew immediate protests from Italians, who had banned it in their country because its account of the Italian humiliation was too painfully accurate. In the United States, the book’s later film adaptation was censored because of Italian pressure. Boston banned the five issues of Scribner’s Magazine that contained the story. Throughout the years the novel continued to be challenged and condemned by public school systems through the United States.

After Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist Party took power in Germany in 1933, Hemingway’s works were among the thousands of books publicly burned. Later, in a 1937 address to the Writer’s Congress in New York, Hemingway condemned Germany’s fascist government, saying that under its system good writers could not exist, and that “fascism is a lie told by bullies.” Hemingway’s publication of To Have and Have Not in 1938 led to more controversy. Detroit, Michigan, bannished the book’s sale, and public libraries removed it from circulation. Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize; however, it drew strong objections and no work of fiction received the prize that year. The U.S. Post Office declared the book to be unmailable.

Biography

(Literary Essentials: Short Fiction Masterpieces)

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, a Chicago suburb, in 1899, the second child of Clarence (Ed) and Grace Hemingway’s six children. Growing up in a doctor’s house, under the domination of a forceful mother, would provide Ernest grist for his literary mill in years to come. The family’s frequent trips to northern Michigan would also figure in his development as a writer, providing him a locale for numerous stories and an appreciation for wild terrain.

After graduating from high school, Hemingway left Chicago to take a job on the Kansas City Star. Shortly after the United States entered World War I, he quit his job and went to Italy as a Red Cross volunteer. There, he was wounded while assisting Italian soldiers. He spent several weeks in a Milan hospital, where he met Agnes von Kurowsky, who would serve as a model for Catherine Barkeley in A Farewell to Arms.

Hemingway returned to the United States in 1919 and began writing stories—none of which sold. In 1920, he met Hadley Richardson, whom he married the following year. They returned to Europe late in 1921, and for the next decade, Hemingway spent his time in Paris or in other locales on the Continent, sharpening his skills as a short-story writer. Two collections of his work were published by literary presses. The many expatriates whom he met in Paris served as models for his first full-length novel, The Sun Also Rises, which appeared to...

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Biography

(Survey of Novels and Novellas)

Ernest Miller Hemingway was the first son of an Oak Park, Illinois, physician, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, and Grace Hemingway, a Christian Scientist. As a student in the Oak Park public schools, Hemingway received his first journalistic experience writing for the Trapeze, a student newspaper. After working as a reporter for the Kansas City Star for less than a year, he enlisted as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross during World War I. He was sent in 1918 to serve on the Italian front, where he received a leg wound. His injury required that he be sent to an American hospital in Milan, and there he met and fell in love with Agnes Von Kurowski, who provided the basis for his characterization of Catherine Barkley in A Farewell to Arms. Hemingway was married in 1921 to Hadley Richardson. They moved to the Left Bank of Paris, lived on her income from a trust fund, and became friends of Gertrude Stein and other Left Bank literary figures.

The Paris years provided Hemingway with material for the autobiographical sketches collected after his death in A Moveable Feast. Also in the Paris years, he met the people who would become the major characters in his roman à clef, The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway dedicated the novel to Hadley, divorced her (in retrospect, one of the saddest experiences in his life), and married Pauline Pfeiffer in 1927. During the 1930’s, Hemingway became attached to the Loyalist cause in Spain, and during the years of the Spanish Civil War, he traveled to that country several times as a war correspondent. His feelings about that war are recorded in For Whom the Bell Tolls, which was an enormous popular success. In 1940, he divorced Pauline and married the independent, free-spirited Martha Gellhorn, whom he divorced in 1945, marrying in that same year Mary Welsh, his fourth wife.

The 1952 publication of The Old Man and the Sea is usually regarded as evidence that the writing slump that Hemingway had suffered for nearly a decade was ended. The last years of his life were marked by medical problems, resulting to a great extent from injuries that he had sustained in accidents and from years of heavy drinking. In 1961, after being released from the Mayo Clinic, Hemingway returned with Mary to their home in Ketchum, Idaho. He died there on July 2, 1961, of a self-inflicted shotgun wound.

Biography

(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

The son of a Midwest doctor, Ernest Hemingway began his writing career as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. In 1918, he went to Italy, where he drove a Red Cross ambulance in World War I and was wounded by machine gun fire. After recuperation, he returned to Europe as a war correspondent, but he soon gave up journalism to write fiction.

His first major novel, The Sun Also Rises, portrays the lost generation of expatriates who wandered Europe in the wake of World War I. A Farewell to Arms tells the story of an American lieutenant in the Italian army. In 1936 and 1937, Hemingway covered the Spanish Civil War for an American newspaper syndicate. From his experiences came the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls. In 1942, he returned to Europe as a war correspondent. He flew with the British Royal Air Force and crossed the English Channel on D day. In 1952, he published The Old Man and the Sea, a sentimental tale of quiet courage in the face of adversity. Hemingway was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for the novel.

Hemingway married four times and fathered three children. Depressed in later life, he died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in 1961. It is impossible to separate the much-publicized persona of Hemingway from the autobiographical projection that emerges from his work. Like his heroes, he was an adventurer: boxer, hunter, fisherman, bullfighter, soldier, war correspondent, expatriate. The Hemingway hero is—perhaps like his creator—a reluctant hero. He is ravaged by inexplicable forces of violence and suffering that he cannot alter. He is a man of few words and few regrets; he accepts pain, injustice, and anguish with stoic dignity.

Hemingway’s bare-bones style earned praise from some critics for arousing emotion through omission and restraint. Others judged his simple declarative sentences and spare descriptions as limited, superficial, and unevocative. Hemingway earned a place among the greats of twentieth century literature. In 1954, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature. The citation lauded “his natural admiration for every individual who fights the good fight in a world of reality overshadowed by violence and death.”

Biography

(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 14)

Because his letters contained so much that would hurt the reputations of those still living, Hemingway requested in his will that they not be released for publication. Despite this, he himself allowed some fragments to “go public” during his lifetime, and since his death many notes and letters have found their way into print. This disorganized and yet unstoppable flow of her husband’s correspondence gradually led Mary Hemingway to decide that an authorized edition of the letters would be preferable to a random sampling. To do this and yet to feel comfortable about the edition she needed to find a person who was both discreet and knowledgeable.

She could hardly have picked a better editor than Carlos Baker. His two major works on Hemingway, a biography and a critical study, have brought Baker international recognition. Late in his own lifetime Hemingway himself put Baker at the top of his list when drawing up a note on those books he needed to review the facts of his own life. Baker has lived up to that implied trust. His introduction and notes display a grace of style together with a density of information. Like Hemingway’s own writing, Baker’s notes are models of a naturalness achieved without showing the intellectual effort that made it possible, an achievement whose quality speaks of Baker’s deep respect for his subject.

Baker does not, however, allow his obvious love of the man to obscure or detract from his obligation to represent Hemingway’s weaknesses as well as his strengths. Baker has judiciously chosen a selection of letters that show both “Hem’s” occasional nobility and his equal tendency to excess and pettiness. Baker has also left in almost all of Hemingway’s spelling and grammar mistakes, except where they were so excessive as to endanger the sense of the letter. The ribald informality of these letters is also left intact and names are only excised in the rare case that the person is still living and the remarks are libelous. Very little, then, of these letters’ original flavor, good or bad, has been lost in editing.

While Hemingway often deprecates his letter-writing, he was a witty and amusing correspondent whose letters vividly reveal his personality. Unlike his slowly and painfully produced stories and novels (The Sun Also Rises, 1926, is an exception), these less circumspect productions show the writer behind the persona. Because of this immediacy, Hemingway is able to use his correspondence for therapy, catharsis, and humor even more than he is able to use it for communication.

To his parents, Hemingway was most restrained and dutiful, often mentioning his intention to go to Mass right after writing. When relating physical pain to friends and relatives he is often jovial, using exaggerated images and a forced good humor: the jokes are literally at his own expense, taken from the injuries to his body. His letters to businessmen were usually businesslike and his letters to friends and critics varied between admiration and anger. Indeed, Hemingway’s moods also profoundly affected his style.

When agitated about fame, fortune, or women, his prose becomes less ordered, more staccato and discontinuous. When expressing deep love his letters often become rather sappy and amazingly maudlin. When annoyed his sharp tongue would often find the epithets that revealed his contemporaries’ weaknesses. His letter-writing most approaches his fictional style when recalling a past but recent incident: here he would turn to colorful narrative. Most of these letters, however, reveal an individual whose personality both rises above and falls below his reputation. Thus while his sentiments are often noble, he also demonstrates an inability to avoid sly innuendo, double entendre, and gossip.

This doubleness also appears in his relationships with people. Hemingway was...

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Biography

(Great Authors of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Because of his compelling prose style and his vision of heroism, Ernest Miller Hemingway holds a secure place among the leading fiction writers of the twentieth century. Born in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, Hemingway was the second child of Clarence “Ed” Hemingway, a physician, and his wife, Grace Hall, a voice teacher. Though reared in a strict home, Hemingway developed as a youth the energetic lifestyle for which he later became known. He participated in competitive sports—football, boxing, swimming—and enjoyed hunting and fishing trips with his father. During high school, he wrote poems and short stories, and following graduation he became employed as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. During...

(The entire section is 1006 words.)

Biography

(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born into an affluent family in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, the eldest of six children. His father, Clarence Edmond, was a physician. His mother, the former Grace Hall, kept an attractive house at 439 North Oak Park Avenue, her father’s dwelling, into which her husband moved and lived until her father’s death in 1905. Grace exposed her son Ernest to the arts by taking him to museums in Chicago and by enrolling him in piano lessons. Hemingway, as both son and writer, frequently rebelled against her puritanical values.

As a student at Oak Park High School, from which Hemingway graduated in 1917, he contributed to the school newspaper and other publications....

(The entire section is 1169 words.)

Biography

(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Like many writers, Ernest Hemingway was a man of many contradictions and of a very convoluted nature. A master stylist, he identified with common people and captured them in their speech patterns, faithfully depicted in his pages. His personal and political philosophy have much to do with proving oneself. Life to Hemingway was a battle to be fought valiantly, as Santiago fought the marlin in The Old Man and the Sea. Perhaps for Hemingway there are no victors, only people who display grace under pressure.

(The entire section is 85 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

Ernest Hemingway Published by Gale Cengage

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, to Clarence Edmunds (physician) and Grace (music teacher) Hemingway, both...

(The entire section is 565 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway Published by Gale Cengage

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, to Clarence and Grace Hemingway. His father was a doctor and his mother a...

(The entire section is 495 words.)

Biography

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of Grace and Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. Hemingway first published...

(The entire section is 453 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, into an upper-middle-class family. Although his childhood does not seem to have been...

(The entire section is 566 words.)

Biography

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Ernest Hemingway was born July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois. He was the second child and eldest son of Clarence Hemingway, a doctor, and...

(The entire section is 911 words.)

Biography

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of Clarence and Grace Hemingway. His first published works...

(The entire section is 591 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway is one of the most influential American writers of the twentieth century. His influence extends not only to novelists and short story writers but also to journalists, playwrights, critics, and filmmakers. Four decades after his death, biographies about him continue to appear. Born July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, Ernest Miller Hemingway was the second child of Clarence Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace (Hall) Hemingway. Hemingway’s middle-class upbringing was conventional, and after graduating in 1917 from Oak Park High School, he joined the Kansas City Star as a reporter. In 1918 Hemingway joined the Red Cross, driving an ambulance in Italy during the waning months of World War I. He was struck with...

(The entire section is 496 words.)

Biography

(Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults)

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of Clarence Edmonds and Grace Hemingway. Hemingway first published...

(The entire section is 459 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

Ernest Hemingway Published by Gale Cengage

Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1899. He was the second son of Clarence Hemingway, a doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway,...

(The entire section is 609 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway Published by Gale Cengage

Ernest Hemingway is one of the most famous American writers of the twentieth century. His rugged lifestyle and terse, penetrating prose have inspired generations of imitators. As much as for his writing, he is known for his adventurous personality and love of the outdoors. He was an avid fisherman and hunter, a firsthand witness of many wars, and a bullfighting aficionado. He was born in 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, where he was raised. His childhood experiences in the woods of Michigan, where his family owned a summer home, contributed to several of his most famous stories which feature the character Nick Adams. After graduating from high school in 1917, where he had contributed a weekly column to the school newspaper and...

(The entire section is 423 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway will always be associated with the dynamic group of artists known as the “modernists” whose ideas set the European...

(The entire section is 541 words.)

Biography

(Short Stories for Students)

Ernest Hemingway, as a result of his short stories, novels, and nonfiction, has become perhaps the best-known American writer of the...

(The entire section is 477 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

Ernest Hemingway Published by Gale Cengage

Ernest Hemingway was born in 1899 to Dr. Clarence Hemingway and Grace Hall Hemingway. They lived in Oak Park, Illinois, and Ernest actively...

(The entire section is 528 words.)

Biography

(Novels for Students)

One of the greatest authors of American literature, Hemingway had modest beginnings in the town of Oak Park, Illinois, where he was born to...

(The entire section is 444 words.)