The Epic of Gilgamesh Analysis
- The Epic of Gilgamesh exemplifies the form of the epic in its tale of a hero who is larger than life, performs superhuman feats, and attracts the attention of the gods.
- The Epic of Gilgamesh is a part of a long oral tradition and shares its narrative sensibilities with other epics like The Odyssey.
- A first-person narrator introduces The Epic of Gilgamesh, inviting readers to imagine the walls of Uruk and the glory of Gilgamesh's reign. After the prologue, the "I" slips away, and the narrative is told in the third person.
The Definition of an Epic
In A Glossary of Literary Terms, literary scholar M. H. Abrams lists five essential characteristics of epic literature: (1) "The hero is a figure of great national or even cosmic importance;" (2) "The setting of the poem is ample in scale, and may be worldwide, or even larger;" (3) "The action involves superhuman deeds in battle;" (4) ''In these great actions the gods and other supernatural beings take an interest or even an active part;" and (5) ''An epic poem is a ceremonial performance, and is narrated in a ceremonial style which is deliberately distanced from ordinary speech and proportioned to the grandeur and formality of the heroic subject and epic architecture'' (p. 52). The Epic of Gilgamesh fulfills each of these characteristics in its own distinct way.
Orality and Performance
One of the key attributes of the Epic of Gilgamesh is the sense of breathless immediacy of the story. The Epic achieves this effect by placing the story in a setting that simulates the oral performance in which the story was originally performed. The opening lines provide a sense that this is not an ancient story, but one just now occurring. The narrative "I" of the Prologue places the reader at Uruk's city walls and erases the distance between that ancient time and the present time of telling the story, inviting the hearer (and reader) to touch the walls, feel their strength, and sense their glory. These walls, the narrative voice proclaims, are those of the great Gilgamesh and now I will tell you his story. This sense of immediacy continues throughout the Epic.
Traditionally, epics begin "in medias res" or "in the middle of things." Although this characteristic was originally applied to Greek and Roman epics like The Odyssey and The Iliad, it is equally true of The Epic of Gilgamesh. The story begins not at the beginning of Gilgamesh's life, but somewhere in the middle. He is initially portrayed as a young, hot-headed king, heedless of the effect of actions and desires on the well-being of his people. One of the effects of this technique is to allow the reader to gauge the extent of Gilgamesh's development as a character.
Another key technique of the epic style is the use of "epithets," usually adjectives or persistent adjective phrases that reveal the attributes or personality of people, places, and things in the story: "strong-walled Uruk" (1. 68), "Humbaba whose name is 'Hugeness'" (1.71), "Shamash the Protector" (1.78), and Utnapishtim "the Faraway" (1.97). Epic epithets provide a good way of keeping track of a character and that character's development.
Literary Formulae and Set-Pieces in the High Style
A third literary characteristic of the epic style is found in the elevated, formal language and repeated formulaic phrases. In fact, the dialogue sounds stilted and rehearsed, as if read for a formal occasion. During chapter 2, "The Forest Journey," Gilgamesh calls out for assistance: "By the life of my mother Ninsun who gave me birth, and by the life of my father, divine Lugulbanda, let me live to be the wonder of my mother, as when she nursed me on her lap" (1. 80). These formal invocations of deity give the task an elevated stature and a sense of being a holy mission which Gilgamesh undertakes for his city and his divine heritage. In another example, a bit later as he faces Humbaba in battle, Gilgamesh beseeches his patron god: ''O glorious Shamash, I have followed...
(The entire section is 7,092 words.)