At a Glance

  • Michael Ondaatje brings together characters of different races and nationalities in The English Patient. French-Canadian nurse Hana has an affair with Kip, a Sikh, while she takes care of the Hungarian Count Laszlo de Almásy, who himself has an affair with Katherine Clifton, an Englishwoman. Ondaatje develops these characters in part by exploring the racial tensions between them.
  • Set variously in Tuscany, Rome, and the Libyan desert, The English Patient explores the international impact of World War II. Its characters come from vastly different backgrounds, both socioeconomic and political, and converge on the Villa San Girolamo after a series of tragedies, including the death of Katherine Clifton, who starves to death in a cave while waiting for Almásy to return with help. The various settings allow Ondaatje to give readers a broader view of World War II.
  • The English Patient was adapted into a 1996 film of the same name. The film emphasizes the romance between Almásy and Katherine Clifton, following their affair to its tragic conclusion. Like the novel, the film includes many subplots that move back and forth in time, depicting Almásy as the English Patient in the care of Hana.

The English Patient

(Literary Masterpieces, Critical Compilation)

Michael Ondaatje is a Sri Lanka-born novelist who lives in Canada. He is a writer, consequently, whose work writhes with the tensions inherent among races, cultures, and nationalities. Personal and political histories are Ondaatje’s concerns, particularly as they intertwine and work to shape the emerging individual consciousness. In The English Patient, which shared the 1992 Booker Prize with Barry Unsworth’s Sacred Hunger, Ondaatje multiplies these histories and makes of his novel a four-stranded narrative that moves between love story, history, and mystery. Any story of love involves itself naturally in mystery, and Ondaatje here deftly takes his reader in and out of the often dark and crossing passages of his characters’ lives.

The physical locus of this narrative is the Villa San Girolamo, a former nunnery set in the hills of Tuscany north of Florence. Once occupied by the Germans, the battle-ravaged villa more recently has served as an Allied field hospital. With the war in Italy near its end, the hospital has been abandoned, except for a patient—the English patient—and a Canadian nurse, Hana, who has refused to evacuate the villa with the rest of the hospital staff.

The dramatic locus of this narrative begins in the exchange of stories between these two figures. Each possesses a private history that demands slow and significant telling, and Ondaatje gives them time at the start of his novel to begin those tellings. These stories take the reader back in time and move about in space; they are effective and sometimes inaccurate histories. That, says Ondaatje, is exactly the point.

The English patient is a man without a name, without a face, without an identity, with barely a temporal existence at all: He submerges himself in a cherished anonymity. His body lies blackened and immobilized by burns received in a plane crash in the Libyan desert; that body, in fact, is the wrecked emblem of his story and is that story’s starting point. Memory moves where the body cannot, and the English patient uses a voice sweetened by morphine to take Hana to the desert, to that “place of faith” and ultimate mystery. The English patient is one of a group of explorers who in the 1930’s sought to map the desert of northern Africa. Most of them were upper-class Englishmen, members of the Royal Geographic Society and representatives of a specific British political consciousness. They moved in foreign cultures as aliens seeking to pierce the deep heart and history of place; their cartographies were scientific, political, and emotional.

The English patient pays a severe price for his engagement. Working backward from his plane crash and his rescue by a Bedouin tribe, he unravels slowly the intricate lines of his relationship with the wife of adventurer Geoffrey Clifton. Just as he seeks to understand the desert and the profound attraction it holds for him, so the English patient labors to comprehend his love for Katharine Clifton, mapping her body as if it were strange and powerful terrain. He finds himself eventually “disassembled” by Katharine, and after her death in the plane crash that chars the English patient’s body beyond recognition, he spends his days and nights piecing together a history and a self from the fragments.

Hana listens to that narrative knowing that she, too, has been “disassembled” by events. Like the English patient, she has been marked by the war in cruel ways: She has lost her father (also badly burned) to the war, and as a nurse she has witnessed close-up the various, inventive, and tragic activities of death. She craves narrative, incomplete though it might be, for it proffers a route back from her own partial mad- ness: narrative functioning as a psychic cartography, of sorts.

Much of Hana’s history remains locked, however, until an element of that history appears—a virtual reality—in her present. David Caravaggio had been Hana’s “uncle” in her childhood in Toronto, her father’s best friend and a professional thief. An expatriate Italian, he had returned to his country to work for the Allies, putting his profession to political and historical use. Betrayed not by his art but by the accident of a photograph, Caravaggio is caught and dismembered by Italian fascists: his thumbs are lopped off, the thief left “disassembled” and recuperating in a field hospital. There he hears of Hana’s circumstance, and he sets out to locate her in the Tuscan landscape. What he has in mind is his own rehabilitation, but what he actually recovers is more than one truth of the past.

Caravaggio’s relationship with Hana drives part of the mystery of Ondaatje’s narrative, for what is superficially avuncular carries with it the suggestion of sexual desire, at least on the part of Caravaggio. Hana, it seems, sparks the thief’s own memory of his marriage and of his wife, now dead. The erotic tension runs near the surface and with special strength from Caravaggio toward Hana; reciprocation is not forthcoming.

That tension is aggravated by Caravaggio’s concern over the relationship between Hana and the English patient, a concern that begins in emotional doubt and evolves into political suspicion. Himself an intimate of the network of intelligence and espionage, Caravaggio comes to a nagging certainty that the English patient is in fact a known and...

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Historical Context

(Novels for Students)

The English Patient is set largely in Italy at the end of World War II and features characters from Africa, Europe, Canada, and India....

(The entire section is 1029 words.)

Literary Style

(Novels for Students)


The novel takes place during World War II. The timing of the novel is integral to several of the themes it...

(The entire section is 828 words.)

Literary Techniques

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

The English Patient is a richly poetic work, one which relies on tone and style as much as action or character development to hold the...

(The entire section is 469 words.)

Ideas for Group Discussions

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Set against the larger context of a world war, The English Patient focuses closely on the lives and characters of only three men and a...

(The entire section is 498 words.)

Social Concerns

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

The English Patient is a richly textured book which movingly explores many of the broad issues of war—the pain, loss, sense of...

(The entire section is 1028 words.)

Topics for Further Study

(Novels for Students)

  • The film version of The English Patient has several differences from the original novel. Watch the film after reading the novel....

(The entire section is 475 words.)

Literary Precedents

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

In his depiction of the human cost of modern warfare, Ondaatje has a precedent in Ernest Hemingway and, to a much lesser degree, Stephen...

(The entire section is 369 words.)

Related Titles

(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

The most significant related title is In the Skin of the Lion, an earlier Ondaatje novel (1995) that features some of the same...

(The entire section is 47 words.)


(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

One section of the book, the "In Situ" chapter, appeared in slightly different form in The New Yorker, August 1992, as a short story...

(The entire section is 173 words.)

Media Adaptations

(Novels for Students)

  • An audio edition of The English Patient, narrated by Michael York, was issued by Random House in 1993.
  • A film...

(The entire section is 54 words.)

What Do I Read Next?

(Novels for Students)

  • In the Skin of a Lion (1987) is the prequel novel to Ondaatje's The English Patient. Set in Canada between the World...

(The entire section is 368 words.)

Bibliography and Further Reading

(Novels for Students)


Bemrose, John, Review of The English Patient, in Maclean, Vol. 105, No. 42, October 19, 1992, p....

(The entire section is 289 words.)


(Masterpieces of American Fiction)

Booklist. LXXXIX, September 15, 1992, p. 124. A review of The English Patient.

Chicago Tribune. October 25, 1992, XIV, p. 5. A review of The English Patient.

Ganapathy-Dore, Geetha. “The Novel of the Nowhere Man: Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient.” Commonwealth 16, no. 2 (Spring, 1996): 96-100. Analyzes themes and characters in The English Patient from a postcolonial perspective.

Heble, Ajay. “Michael Ondaatje and the Problem of History.” Clio 19, no. 2 (1990): 97-111. Discusses Ondaatje’s deconstruction and...

(The entire section is 338 words.)