After concentrating on poetry and fiction earlier in his career, Samuel Beckett gained a large international audience with his first play, En attendant Godot (pb. 1952; Waiting for Godot, 1954). His next, Endgame, confirmed his preeminence among practitioners of an emerging genre that came to be known as the Theater of the Absurd. The second play is yet sparer and bleaker—a reduction of the theatrical experience to a minimal set, a vestigial plot, and simple but intellectually charged dialogue among characters who continue to play a game of life apparently already lost. Although the play has been interpreted as a cry of despair, some of its features, notably Nagg’s zestful reiteration of his story of the tailor and Hamm’s determination to face down adversity (he uses the word “good” four times in his final soliloquy), suggest that Beckett’s characters refuse to succumb to hopelessness.
Beckett’s ingenious interweaving of the themes of play and Passion capture the modern skepticism toward beliefs and values long regarded as redemptive and more recently as at least sustaining. Beckett provoked a long battle with British censorship by making Hamm refer to God as a “bastard,” but the religious echoes in the play have by and large not offended audiences more inclined to view Christ’s Passion as human drama rather than as part of a divine salvific scheme. Nor has Beckett’s parody of theatrical conventions...
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