Encheiridion Additional Summary



Further Reading

Arnold, E. V. Roman Stoicism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. A valuable work on the development of Stoicism during the Roman Empire. Notable for its careful choice of citations in recounting Epictetus’s philosophy.

Epictetus. The Discourses as Reported by Arrian, the Manual, and Fragments. Edited and translated by W. S. Oldfather. 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925-1928. Standard edition of the complete works with Greek text and facing translation. Translation is very literal and therefore useful to consult for difficult passages. Contains a somewhat dated but still important introduction, as well as extensive English indexes.

_______. Epictetus’ “Handbook” and the “Tablet of Cebes”: Guides to Stoic Living. Edited and translated by Keith Seddon. New York: Routledge, 2005. A new translation of Encheiridion with extensive commentary on the work, as well as a lengthy introduction providing information on Epictetus’s life and writings, Stoicism, and the key concepts in his philosophy. Includes a glossary of key Greek and English terms.

Long, A. A. Hellenistic Philosophy. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974. Chapter 4 provides background absolutely essential to understanding the philosophy of Epictetus. Provides an accurate sketch of the main tenets of Greek Stoicism that were modified by Epictetus.

Scaltsas, Theodore, and Andrew S. Mason, eds. The Philosophy of Epictetus. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Collection of essays examining various aspects of Epictetus’s philosophy, including his Stoicism and ideas about cynicism, the self, and morality.

Stadter, Philip A. Arrian of Nicomedia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980. An interesting study of Arrian, who edited Epictetus’s works but was also a biographer of Alexander the Great. Deals with problems of the transcription of Epictetus’s lectures and provides insights into the period in which he lived.

Stephens, William O. Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom. London: Continuum, 2007. A study of Epictetus’s moral philosophy, focusing on his conception of happiness.