What does the speaker in "Dover Beach" believe the world beyond individual relationships lacks?

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The poem names six specific things which the world does not have to offer. They are joy, love, light, certitude, peace, and help for pain. They do not exactly correspond to any of the combinations of two that are shown in your question. The closest would be b) light nor love, but that would be leaving out peace. The poem does not mention riches, rewards, prosperity, glory or glamour, and maybe Matthew Arnold would not have denied that such material things are obtainable without religious faith. The itemization of things the speaker believes the modern world is lacking is found in the last stanza.

Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! for the world, which seems
To lie before us like a land of dreams,
So various, so beautiful, so new,
Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,
Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;
And we are here as on a darkling plain
Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,
Where ignorant armies clash by night.

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