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Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 287

The "characters" in the collection of four essays by Bakhtin published as The Dialogic Imagination are ideas about literary theory and language. Bakhtin emphasizes the ongoing interplay between language and its cultural/temporal context as well as between the author, the characters, and the reader. He emphasizes how contemporary culture is affected by, and in turn affects, each of these. He argues that language is not static but dynamic and that its meaning is constantly updated, anticipating and pioneering some post-modern literary theories.

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Dialogism is contrasted with monologism. In monologism, we hear a single speaker's ideas and points of view, which cannot be challenged in the same place and time. In dialogism, we have multiple perspectives at the same time, which can facilitate the observation of multiple viewpoints by the reader. Bakhtin viewed the modern novel as more conducive to dialogism, as opposed to other forms of literature, like the epic, which tended toward monologism and a unitary viewpoint.

Heteroglossia refers to different types of language and speech in literature: that of authors, narrators, or different characters. Different age groups, social groups, regional dialects, and occupational groups all have their own languages, and these distinctions can be multiplied. There is no one language, according to Bakhtin, and no language is neutral. The diversity of voices in the novel, or heteroglossia, is what animates the novel through dialogism.

Chronotope refers to the literary theory of how space and time are represented in language and literature. The intersection of temporal and spatial relationships in a novel, for example, creates its own distinct world. A chronotope may describe a fictional place and time or a real setting in concrete historical time. It may be static or dynamic, familiar or alien.

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