The Devil and Tom Walker Old Scratch
by Washington Irving

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Old Scratch

Extended Old Scratch Character Analysis

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In Washington Irving's "The Devil and Tom Walker," the titular devil fuels Tom Walker's greed and serves as the catalyst for the story's events. The devil represents moral sin and seeks to corrupt others. In this respect, he uses Tom Walker's ambition for his own purposes.

The devil resides deep in a swamp near an ancient Native-American stronghold. This stronghold has infiltrated the lore of Tom Walker's society, which claims that the land represents war and violence and that Native Americans made sacrifices to an “Evil Spirit” there. The devil is described as a “great black man,” because his face is covered in soot and dirt. He wears a red belt, or sash, and carries a large axe upon his back. He also has black hair that sticks out in many directions and large red eyes. He says that he has many names, including the black woodsman and “Old Scratch.”

During his first meeting with Tom, the devil relishes in his own accomplishments in New England, such as "presiding at the persecutions of Quakers and Anabaptists," patronizing slave dealers, and masterminding the Salem Witch trials. The devil is a tricky character, who only makes bargains when he is sure to benefit. He and Tom come to an agreement of sorts in their initial meeting, although the details are not made specific. Given the lore around the devil, it's likely that he desires Tom's soul in exchange for Kidd the Pirate's treasure.

When Tom's wife sets out to claim Kidd's treasure herself, the devil kills her and takes her valuables rather than strike any deal. Tom sees this as a favor that the devil has done for him. However, the devil refuses to appear again until Tom is desperate for money and finally makes an official pact. The devil offers Tom the choice to become a slave trader, which Tom refuses, and then to become a usurer. The devil’s choices for Tom’s career show that both slave trading and usury are considered evil and are supported by the devil. The narrator implies that Tom sells his soul to the devil for success and wealth as a usurer.

The devil claims patronage of all corrupt and morally reprehensible enterprises, such as slave trading and religious persecution. He encourages humans to be sinful, and does so with Tom Walker by encouraging his greed. When Tom asks for proof of the devil’s truth about the Kidd the Pirate’s treasure, the devil places his thumb on Tom’s forehead and burns a mark. This can...

(The entire section is 661 words.)