Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 799
Father Riccardo Fontana
Father Riccardo Fontana, an idealistic young Jesuit priest who opposes the Catholic church’s concordat with Adolf Hitler and who tries unsuccessfully to persuade the pope to speak out against the Nazi atrocities against the Jews. Joining a group destined for Auschwitz, he becomes, in effect, the pope’s representative, or “deputy,” accepting for himself the morally correct role he believes the pope has abdicated.
Kurt Gerstein, an officer in the SS and member of the Protestant Confessing church. Gerstein is a devout Christian who attempts to destroy the Nazi system from within. As an SS officer, he has evidence that the Jews are being gassed in the concentration camps and, knowing the Nazis’ fear of the moral authority of the church, believes that intervention by the pope could stop the persecution.
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli (ew-JEH-nee-oh pah-CHEHL-lee), who is portrayed with grand gestures and aristocratic coolness. He is a symbol of the church as an institution. He does not protest the arrest of the Jews except in empty, diplomatic language and wishes the church to be an impartial mediator for Adolf Hitler and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The symbolic washing of hands reinforces his refusal to speak out against the mass killings.
The Doctor, an inhuman figure with a charming, likable manner. He sorts the Auschwitz prisoners into the ones who will work and the ones who will die immediately. His role is that of absolute evil, confronting Riccardo with doubts about the existence of God.
Count Fontana, a high-ranking lay adviser to the pope. As Riccardo’s father, he makes the personal confrontation between his son and the pope possible. He is valuable to the Vatican as a financier and business manager and shows himself to be a man of kindness and feeling who well understands the dynamics and politics of the Vatican.
Cesare Orsenigo (cheh-ZAH-reh ohr-SEH-nee-goh), the apostolic nuncio in Berlin and Riccardo’s superior. The nuncio is sixty-nine years old and a man of great self-discipline with a candid and tolerant expression. His role is to articulate the position of the church—that Western civilization must be protected from Russian communism, even if that means dealing with Hitler.
Baron von Rutta
Baron von Rutta, a distinguished aristocrat and member of the Reichs Armaments Cartel. This character, along with Müller-Saale of the Krupp works, articulates the position of the German industrialists, whose main concern is using the Jews as forced labor to make profits.
The Abbot, the father general of a religious order. He wants the pope to speak out for the Jews but is committed to his vow of obedience if the pope does not do so. A man of conscience, the Abbot has saved hundreds of lives by protecting individuals who are attempting to escape.
The Cardinal, a suave, somewhat ruthless diplomat in the service of the pope. A man with remarkable intelligence who rose out of poverty, he considers himself a realist in supporting the church position that Hitler can be used to block communism.
Professor August Hirt
Professor August Hirt, a Strassburg University anatomist who attempts to prove Nazi racial theories by examining the skulls of concentration camp victims.
Helga, a waitress and later a secretary. She is a young, attractive blonde who enjoys flirting but is oblivious to politics and the evil around her. She falls under the spell of the Doctor and accompanies him to Auschwitz, where she becomes his mistress.
Air Force Lieutenant von Rutta
Air Force Lieutenant von Rutta, the baron’s son, a young man of about twenty years who has just won the Knight’s Cross. An innocent and likable person, he is a brave soldier and shy with women.
Jacobson, a Jew whom Gerstein hides and then attempts to smuggle out of Germany.
Adolf Eichmann, a colorless bureaucrat who efficiently plans the transport of Jews to the camps.
Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Fritsche
Lieutenant Colonel Dr. Fritsche, a doctor of jurisprudence who allocates inmates to the industrial plants near Auschwitz.
Carlotta, a converted Catholic whose Italian fiancé has died in battle. She is considered a full-blooded Jewess and is sent to Auschwitz.
Dr. Lothar Luccani
Dr. Lothar Luccani (lew-CHAH-nee),
a boy of nine
a boy of nine,
a girl of five
a girl of five, and
Pippa (the baby), a part-Jewish family living within view of the papal palace. Luccani, Sr., is a Catholic, and the family has made arrangements to hide in a monastery when the SS comes to arrest them.
Signora Simonetta (see-moh-NEHT-tah), a neighbor of the Luccanis who takes care of the baby when the family members are taken prisoner.
Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 122
Sources for Further Study
Barasch-Rubinstein, Emanuela. The Devil, the Saints, and the Church: Reading Hochhuth’s “The Deputy.” New York: Peter Lang, 2004.
Bentley, Eric, ed. The Storm over “The Deputy.” New York: Grove Press, 1964.
Bigsby, Christopher. Remembering and Imagining the Holocaust: The Chain of Memory. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Cochrane, Arthur C., ed. Special section on The Deputy. Christianity and Crisis, March 30, 1964, pp. 44-54.
Falconi, Carlo. The Silence of Pius XII. Translated by Bernard Wall. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
Friedländer, Saul. Pius XII and the Third Reich. New York: Octagon Books, 1980.
Lewy, Gunther. The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
Taëni, Rainer. Rolf Hochhuth. Translated by R. W. Last. London: Wolff, 1977.
Ward, Margaret E. Rolf Hochhuth. Boston: Twayne, 1977.