The Death Ship

by B. Traven
Start Free Trial

Critical Evaluation

Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Last Updated on May 9, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 844

Written in a naturalistic style with plain, unadorned language, and peppered with mild epithets and profanity, B. Traven’s novel The Death Ship is part picaresque novel, part character study, and part proletarian lament. The story is told from the perspective of an ordinary person, a particular and unique representative of the faceless sea of humanity. The story proceeds from one apparently random incident to the next, and then to an inevitable conclusion.

The Death Ship, a symbol for the voyage toward oblivion that every living thing must make, is an important introduction to the themes and fatalistic tone that prevail in the bulk of Traven’s other long fiction. The Death Ship, Traven’s first published novel, is a work of imagination in the literary tradition of earlier sea-story adventures written by writers such as Herman Melville and Joseph Conrad (in the novel, Traven alludes to Conrad, who had died in 1924). The novel is likewise based on the author’s own real-life experiences. He had earned his passage from a Europe in political, social, and economic upheaval to postrevolutionary Mexico, where he would live the rest of his life. Though the conclusion of The Death Ship seems to tell of the end of character Gerard Gales, he lives to appear again in two of Traven’s subsequent novels: Der Wobbly (1926; The Cotton-Pickers, 1956) and Die Brücke im Dschungel (1929; The Bridge in the Jungle, 1938).

A central issue of the novel is the matter of identity. National governments—in Traven’s time or now—define a person upon the strength of his or her documentation, even, one could say, upon the thickness of his or her wallet. Without proper credentials (certificates, passports, visas, written records) or without money to bribe officials, a person does not exist and therefore has no rights; also, without a solid past supported by papers, a person has no future. This is an entirely appropriate subject for Traven, because the question of his own mysterious identity has been a topic of interest for scholars and researchers for many years. Evidence suggests that Traven was either a German named Otto Feige or an anarchist named Ret Marut, escaping persecution in Europe. Others argue that he was Chicago-born Traven Torsvan, or the reclusive author’s supposed Mexican agent and translator Hal Croves, or perhaps all of these at various times. More creative theories propose that Traven was really writer Jack London in disguise, or the illegitimate son of Wilhelm II, or satirist Ambrose Bierce, who had disappeared in Mexico about ten years before Traven surfaced there. Complicating the problem is the large number of pseudonyms under which the author is known to have written. Speculation about why Traven chose to hide his true identity—in contrast to most serious writers, who depend upon appearances and public relations to sell books—runs rampant.

Closely allied to the concept of identity in The Death Ship is the topic of bureaucracy. Gales, like the protagonist in Franz Kafka’s novel Der Prozess (1925; The Trial, 1937), moves through frustrating, labyrinthine governmental systems at the mercy of petty, self-important officials employed by the state (and, thus, relatively immune to the vagaries of economics). These officials are empowered to dispense passports, certificates, sailor’s cards, licenses, and similar documents. Without such documents, Traven maintains, a person can survive in the modern world only on a lawless, subsistence level.

Labor versus management also comes under close scrutiny in The Death Ship. Gales, typical of ordinary workers everywhere, is in opposition to his immediate superiors, who represent the owners. (The character’s name may been an homage to Linn Gale, editor of the monthly publication of the Industrial Workers of the World, also known as the Wobblies—a union organization the author frequently wrote about.) Traven, a constant defender of the downtrodden and dispossessed, establishes a theme in The Death Ship that reappears in his later fiction: the dichotomy of those who actually provide the labor—often at great bodily risk—to keep an enterprise going and those who profit from the sweat of the workers and who ultimately have no real concern for their employees’ welfare. To the owners, those desperate to earn a living can always be found to replace those who become injured or sick, or who die on the job. To Gales, and to Traven, such a state of affairs is reprehensible, akin to slavery. However, both the author and his characters realize that little can be done to change their situation.

As in the author’s later novels, mundane events in The Death Ship serve as catalysts to discuss issues of greater import. The simple words of Traven’s unsophisticated, uneducated characters, like Gales, encompass cosmic ideas: the meaning of existence, life and death, bravery and cowardice, appearance and reality, freedom and slavery, the religious and the supernatural. Such concerns, the author contends, are—regardless of time, place, race, creed, gender, social status, or other distinctions—universal. This commonality of experience makes The Death Ship as worthy of consideration today as it was when originally published in 1926.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access