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David Hume 1711-1776

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Scottish philosopher, essayist, historian, critic, and autobiographer.

The following entry presents recent criticism on Hume's works.

Considered one of the most important figures in the history of modern philosophy, Hume promoted what he called a “mitigated” form of philosophical skepticism—the doctrine that all empirical knowledge is uncertain. Hume wrote extensively on causation and perception, formulated theories of knowledge and ideas, and wrote at length on moral, political, and religious issues. In most of his works Hume attempted to shed light on the reasoning process through which knowledge of such issues was achieved, earning international praise from the philosophical community; in the words of his friend Adam Smith, Hume was a man of “the most severe application, the most extensive learning, the greatest depth of thought, and a capacity in every respect the most comprehensive.”

Biographical Information

The son of Joseph Home, a lawyer, and Katherine Falconer Home, an ardent Calvinist, Hume was born on his family's estate at Ninewells in Berwickshire. Joseph Home died during David's infancy, after which most of Home's estate passed to David's elder brother, John. David remained at Ninewells until age twelve, when he and John went to the University of Edinburgh; after three years, they left without degrees, a common practice at the time. Although the Edinburgh curriculum probably included some philosophy, all that is known for certain about David's studies is, according to his autobiography, that he “passed through the ordinary Course of Education with Success.” Hume returned to Ninewells intending to study law but soon found in himself “an insurmountable Aversion to anything but the pursuits of Philosophy and General Learning.” Around age eighteen a “new scene of thought” opened to him, and he began the work which became his A Treatise of Human Nature.

Hume had difficulty securing a publisher for the Treatise, and, when it reached the public, critical response was largely unfavorable. Subsequently, Hume disowned the style, if not the substance, of the Treatise by writing his Essays, Moral and Political, in which Hume described himself as a “new Author.” Unlike the Treatise, Hume's Essays met with popular and critical success. On the strength of this acclaim, Hume solicited a professorship at Edinburgh but, owing to the perception among some members of the university that the Treatise was philosophically unsound, he was unsuccessful in his bid. Hume instead became tutor to the insane Marquis of Annandale, and, although he found the position extremely disagreeable, it gave him time to begin his Philosophical Essays concerning Human Understanding and (probably) to write Three Essays, Moral and Political, both of which he issued in 1748.

As his reputation as a thinker and writer grew, Hume was called to serve as a military judge-advocate, traveled as an aide-de-camp to Turin, and began a correspondence with the French political philosopher Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brede et de Montesquieu. By 1751, however, Hume settled in Edinburgh, where he was appointed librarian of the Advocates Library and where he availed himself of the books in his charge to write his History of England. The work eventually became a success in Britain and abroad; Hume found himself financially independent and was courted by London and Edinburgh society. He went to Paris in 1763 as secretary to the British ambassador, and was received with thunderous acclaim. When he left Paris for London in 1766, Hume took Jean-Jacques Rousseau with him, but Rousseau embarrassed Hume by falsely accusing him of a variety of misdeeds, and the two quarreled both publicly and in print before Rousseau's sudden departure. Returning to Edinburgh in 1769, Hume had a great house built for himself and worked on his Dialogues concerning Natural...

(The entire section contains 1300 words.)

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Principal Works