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Last Updated on May 7, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 520

Medicine
Darkness Visible illustrates the controversies at the heart of treating depression. On the one hand, many of those afflicted do not want to be treated with drugs, believing that the root of their illness is not necessarily in their bodies but either in the world in which they live or in their spirit or mind. People in this camp often seek psychotherapy for treatment. On the other hand, a large part of the medical community itself staunchly defends the use of pharmaceuticals, arguing that depression is a result of faulty brain chemistry and that drugs are the most effective form of treatment for sufferers. Styron himself weighs both of these positions, writing:

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The intense and sometimes comically strident factionalism that exists in present-day psychiatry—the schism between the believers in psychotherapy and the adherents of pharmacology—resembles the medical quarrels of the eighteenth century (to bleed or not to bleed) and almost defines in itself the inexplicable nature of depression and the difficulty of its treatment.

Styron never resolves the conflict for himself, partaking of both psychotherapy and antidepressants at various points. Although he ‘‘conquers’’ the disease by the end of his story, his claim that ‘‘the disease of depression remains a great mystery’’ remains his final word on depression. Depression, for Styron, is as much an affliction of the soul as it is of the brain, and he compares those who have endured the ‘‘despair beyond despair’’ to poets who have trudged up from hell into the daylight of emotional health.

Meaning
In a way, Darkness Visible is a meditation on loss and meaning. When his depression hits, he writes that he feels his ‘‘mind dissolving’’ and that his brain is full of ‘‘anarchic disconnections.’’ He loses his voice, his sexual desire, his physical energy, his ability to work, to communicate, to love. He has even lost the capacity to dream. All of the elements that conventionally define human behavior and identity are compromised. He describes himself as existing in a...

(The entire section contains 520 words.)

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