Summary and Analysis: Part 3—The Third Hearing—Chapters 4-6

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Rubashov descends the stairs to submit again to the examination by Gletkin. These examinations continue for at least several days and nights, and they are broken only by one- or two-hour intervals. Gletkin, by doing all the examinations himself, deprives Rubashov of "the moral superiority of the victim" and destroys Rubashov's sense of day and night. Gletkin's impressive durability contrasts with Rubashov's sense of degradation. He faces an accusation with seven points, and each point is examined by Gletkin and resisted by Rubashov. Rubashov recalls his meeting with Herr von Z., a representative of a foreign Power, after a diplomatic lunch. In this meeting, the two went from lightly discussing the breeding of guinea pigs to engaging in a loosely veiled talk about the possible overthrow of No. 1. Rubashov feels it was only "idle chatter," but Gletkin charges it was a conspiracy. Suddenly Rubashov doubts if it really was idle chatter, and he begins to feel old and worn-out by his "years of illegal struggle," exile, and Party struggles. He confesses to this conspiracy and is told by Gletkin that Ivanov is under arrest.

At their next meeting, Gletkin tells Rubashov that he has not been tortured because it would not do any good, and a public trial is the best way to produce his confession. Rubashov's peculiar, twisted sense of duty keeps him determined to struggle against Gletkin. Meanwhile, Gletkin's voice has become gentler and nearly normal, and Gletkin even grows nervous when he fails to get Rubashov to admit to sabotaging the aluminum trust. After this victory, Rubashov tells Gletkin that he refused to admit to this point "'because it is a technical absurdity.'" In the ensuing discussion, Gletkin replies to Rubashov's contention that it is silly to fire workers for being two minutes late to work by pointing out that his village had no sense of punctuality or work ethic. This makes harsh treatment of the peasantry essential to create a productive, orderly work force.

Gletkin adds that the masses require "'a simple, easily grasped explanation'" for hard and complicated processes: this is why the Party invents scapegoats of saboteurs and devils. These dissidents are accused of causing the persistent low standard of living of the citizenry. At the end of the discussion, Gletkin reveals that Ivanov was killed the night before.

Before Rubashov goes to sleep for two hours, he wonders why Ivanov's death has failed to move him. He concludes that he has "reached a state which precluded any deeper emotion" than a desire for sleep, and he muses that Gletkin and other young Party members have no past because they reached maturity only after the Party had already come into power and are merely completing the work of the original Party members. This reflection prompts him to make another diary entry in which he compares his dismissive attitude toward people like Gletkin with the attitude the apes must have had toward the Neanderthals. He speculates that the apes regarded the Neanderthals with amusement and horror because of the Neanderthal's barbarism and crudeness. However, the Neanderthals eventually displaced the apes, and he proposes that Gletkin and the other crude young Party members are similarly displacing the original Party members.

Five or six days after the start of the examinations, Rubashov faints as his motives are discussed. The prison doctor revives him and sends Rubashov out to the yard for fresh air. There, he encounters the peasant, who recollects the time when he lived in his village and the sheepherders would take their sheep into the hills as the snow melted in spring. Rubashov...

(This entire section contains 1073 words.)

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picks up a handful of snow, rubs it on his face, and goes to Gletkin's room.

When the questioning resumes, Gletkin reads from Rubashov's diary where he stated that good faith does not matter, only right and wrong. This, Rubashov suspects, is why he is going to be put on display at the public trial as a devil. Gletkin reiterates the high stakes the Party faces and the need to focus on preserving its status and eliminating the Party faction that seeks foreign revolution and the establishment of Communist governments in foreign countries. He maintains that this strategy, which he says Rubashov supported, was dangerous. It was dangerous because the Party needed to conserve its strength and focus its efforts on preserving itself in its homeland against its foreign enemies. Using Party resources to attempt to establish Communist governments in foreign countries would have weakened the Party in its homeland and created the possibility that it would be overthrown. With this approach, and "'the principle that the end justifies the means—all means,'" Rubashov will be executed. Rubashov replies by saying that he understands and will pay for being wrong. He signs the statement confessing his counter-revolutionary motives and service to a foreign Power, and goes to sleep in his cell.

The patient Gletkin continues to slowly break down the exhausted Rubashov over the course of an undefined number of days. Rubashov cannot tell time or control his own sleep, and so gradually his hold on his own ideas and memories becomes weaker and weaker. Gletkin's strength and endurance have won out over Rubashov's intellectualism. The discussion of the conversation with Herr von Z. exemplifies this: Rubashov attempts to quibble with the crude judgment that he attempted to collaborate with the Nazis, but for Gletkin and the Party the important point is simply that Rubashov discussed the matter. Rubashov's specific actions are of little concern compared with his general desire for a new regime, which is sufficient to prove his treachery.

Gletkin, though, is more than a Neanderthal. His small kindness to Rubashov and decision not to pursue the charge of industrial sabotage against Rubashov give rise to the explanation of why such harsh punishment of "sabotage" is necessary. Gletkin relates that the peasants of his village were shiftless and indolent: from this and from his theory about the need for scapegoats, he concludes that it is necessary to propagate myths of "devils and saboteurs" to the workers. Gletkin declares himself to be a true believer in the Party even as he dismisses Ivanov as a cynic useful for his knowledge but not able to truly serve the Party. Gletkin's faith is the primary thing that separates him from Rubashov and Rubashov's colleagues, both because of and despite the fact that that faith is not well thought out or intellectually considered.


Summary and Analysis: Part 3—The Third Hearing—Chapter 3


Summary and Analysis: Part 4—The Grammatical Fiction—Chapters 1-3