Further Reading

(Contemporary Literary Criticism)


Parker, Dorothy R. Singing an Indian Song: A Biography of D'Arcy McNickle. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992, 316 p.

Traces McNickle's life and discusses his influence on Indian-white relations as evidenced in his work in Native-American development organizations and in his various writings.

Ruppert, James. D'Arcy McNickle. Boise, Id.: Boise State University Western Writers Series, 1988, 55 p.

Overview of McNickle's life and work, including critical commentary on each of his books.


Clifton, James A. Review of Indian Man: A Life of Oliver La Farge, by D'Arcy McNickle. Saturday Review LIV, No. 43 (23 October 1971): 32, 98.

Positive review of Indian Man.

Leduc, Thomas. Review of Indian Man: A Life of Oliver La Farge, by D'Arcy McNickle. The American Historical Review 78, No. 3 (June 1973): 742-43.

Describes La Farge's life and praises McNickle's portrait as perceptive and sympathetic.

McNickle, D'Arcy. "Indian and European: Indian-White Relations from Discovery to 1887." In The North American Indians: A Sourcebook, edited by Roger C. Owen, James J. F. Deetz, and Anthony D. Fisher, pp. 621-35. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Explains the different mind-sets of Europeans and Native Americans upon initial contact, depicts resulting misunderstandings, and details the changing attitudes of white government toward Indian needs, rights, and demands.

Owens, Louis. "The Red Road to Nowhere: D'Arcy McNickle's The Surrounded and 'The Hungry Generations.'" American Indian Quarterly XIII, No. 3 (Summer 1989): 239-48.

Compares The Surrounded with its earlier manuscript incarnation, "The Hungry Generations." Owens argues that whereas the earlier version, with its happy ending, resembles conventional romance, the darker vision of the final novel is a hallmark of naturalism.

Ruppert, James. "Textual Perspectives and the Reader in The Surrounded." In Narrative Chance: Postmodern Discourse on Native American Indian Literatures, edited by Gerald Vizenor, pp. 91-100. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989.

Discusses The Surrounded in terms of Wolfgang Iser's critical theories.

Secco, Anne. "Indian Life in the 1930s as Portrayed in The Surrounded, a Novel by D'Arcy McNickle." Revue Française d'Etudes Américaines XIII, No. 38 (November 1988): 366-68.

Examines the changing perspective of the narrator in The Surrounded as he returns to his reservation and experiences the loss of traditional Native-American values.