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Canto 9 Summary and Analysis

New Characters
Three Furies: Queen Medusa’s handmaids: Alecto, Magaera, Tisiphone

The Heavenly Messenger: Helper to Virgil and Dante; possibly St. Paul

The Heretics: In open graves; had trusted reason rather than the church

Medusa: Evil, serpent-haired goddess; could turn people to stone

Summary
Dante begins to lose hope when Virgil is denied entrance to the City of Dis. Even Virgil is pale at this point. Dante asks Virgil if he has ever made the trip before and Virgil tells him that he had once gone to the City of Dis at the insistence of a witch named Erichtho. Virgil’s task at that time had been to bring a soul from Judas’s circle in the lower realms. Dante, however, does not listen well because he is watching the red-hot battlements (breastworks) of the tower.

Dante’s eyes are drawn upward to the tower, where he sees three shapes: the three Furies named Alecto, Magaera, and Tisiphone. They threaten to summon Medusa to turn Dante and Virgil to stone. Virgil turns Dante around to prevent his looking in case Medusa does come.

A great wind blows and then one comes from Heaven to help the two travelers. The messenger chastises the spirits and reminds them how Cerberus had tried to rebel, was chastised, and still bears the scars from the experience.

The heavenly messenger returns to other matters, and Virgil and Dante continue. They see that the stone slabs designed to cover the graves in this area are no longer in place; the souls within the open tombs sigh aloud. Flames leap forth from the graves.

Discussion and Analysis
Dante is quick to lose his faith when Virgil cannot gain quick admission into the City of Dis. Virgil himself says that help is a long time in coming; this could be a reference to the delay in the second coming of Christ or an allusion to the fact that people in dire straits should seek help quickly since they cannot survive on their own.

Some interpreters see Dante’s question about Virgil’s previous journey as a ploy to take Virgil’s mind from the pressures of the moment. Other references suggest that Dante is seeking to rebuild Virgil’s confidence by reminding him that he has successfully made the trip once.

Erichtho is a witch with power over the dead. Virgil says that he made a trip at another time to bring a shade up from the lower realms for her. Since Dante does not listen carefully to the explanation that Virgil gives for removing the shade from the lower realms, the reader (and most interpreters of The Inferno) are at a loss as to Virgil’s explanation beyond the fact that he was bringing up one from Judas’s circle. (Supposedly this particular Judas is Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus.)

Dante refers to the Furies also by their Greek name of Erinyes. The three Furies worry and fret those who have committed sins and have a guilty conscience. The...

(The entire section is 758 words.)